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This nondirective must be taken into account when attempting therapy consists of the therapists helping the to osteoporosis treatment order 200 mg sustiva fast delivery predict behavior symptoms xanax withdrawal cheap sustiva 600mg. Trait theories of personality selects by acknowledging the therapist under psychology contend that each person pos stands what the client is expressing and does sesses certain stable medicine cups buy sustiva 200mg, identifying characteris not condemn the client for his or her experi tics medicine hat college purchase sustiva 600mg fast delivery. This leads the client to acknowledge the her who he/she is and that determine what parts of himself/herself that he/she has been he/she does. For example, a well-known per ignoring or denying and thus gain better infor sonality trait is extroversion. Personality traits infu or when the individuals behavior is being ence behavior. Introverted person is more likely to behave in a way that people are just the opposite: they tend to pre fts the current situation rather than his/her fer small-group events, are more likely to be usual, personality-driven way of acting. Various personality traits have been allows the identifcation of the importance of shown to predict such behaviors as helping, the situation versus personality in the predic conformity, aggressiveness, and prejudiced tion of a persons behavior. If the participants behavior ple are bound to have inconsistencies in their differs as a function of which situation they behavior. For example, though an individual were exposed to, the experimenter deter may have an introverted personality, the mines that this situational difference does person may behave in an outgoing fashion infuence behavior. Therefore, sonality scales and manipulate the situation it has been noted that the situation the per to determine whether personality or the situ son is in must also play a role in infuencing ation better predicts behavior. There ferently in different situations resulted in a are many scales available for measuring vari debate called the person-situation contro ous personality characteristics. Further, if one versy, which lasted two decades and involved is trying to measure the way a person usually the discussion of when personality versus the behaves, multiple people who know the indi situation could be used to predict behavior vidual well should be asked about his or her better. The behavior should also be iorists) thought only the situation infuences something that can be observed directly, and behavior. At the same time, other psycholo it should be related to the personality charac gists specializing in personality believed that teristic of interest. The behavior should also internal personality characteristics had more be recorded across several situations. Some situations mise was the determination that both per are more infuential on behavior than are sonality and the situation infuence behavior, others. These situations may be those with though the relative effects of personality and which the person is less familiar or which may the situation change with circumstances. There are certain conditions under which an Examples of these types of situations are job individuals personality is more likely to infu interviews and church. In these types of situ ence his/her behavior than the situation he/ ations there tend to be strong situational cues she is in now. Such circumstances may involve (there is an expectation for a certain type of situations when the individual is display behavior), and the individuals personality will ing a strong or dominant personality trait, tend to infuence behavior less than those situ when the situation is not putting any pres ational requirements. However, if the person sure on the individual to behave in a certain is in a familiar situation (among family and way, when the individual does not care about friends), his/her personality is more likely to how his/her behavior fts into the situation, infuence behavior. Consider how a persons 377 person-situation debate behavior would differ if he/she were among another person may be domineering. Even personality trait is considered strong, or domi if the person is normally a relaxed, happy-go nant, in a person, that personality trait is more lucky person, in an interview it is likely that likely to infuence the persons behavior across he/she will be somewhat anxious and on edge. A person could be very In a job interview, the person would also try to open to new experiences, and somewhat intro be as professional and polite as possible, while verted. This person would be expected to be with friends, he/she might tease and make silly open to the new experiences present in many jokes. So knowledge of the persons happy-go situations, but he/she would only be expected lucky personality would lead to the prediction to be introverted some of the time. Personality of his/her behavior better when the person traits can also be strong across individuals. An is among friends than in a more formal job example of this is peoples expressive traits, interview setting. Similarly, while some people which are displayed in a persons speech, man might have personality tendencies that lead nerisms, and gestures. Expressive traits are them consistently to exhibit either helpful or considered strong across individuals because aggressive behaviors, the situation can also most people tend to use the same types of ways infuence their behavior, making that per to express themselves across different situa sonality tendency more or less pronounced. A person with a very apathetic personal For example, even a very helpful person may ity will generally speak in a very monotonous become unhelpful and dismissive if he/she is voice and seem bored or practically lifeless very busy or upset about something. This is because the strong traits will person to react more or less to situational infuence behavior more than the situation. In effect, just having the specifc On the other hand, the situation has a greater personality characteristic makes the situation infuence on whether weak personality traits more or less infuential on behavior. For example, people differ of self-monitoring is one example of this type in how concerned they are with impressing of personality characteristic that affects how others. People who have a the impressions they make are more likely to high level of this trait care a great deal about behave differently around people they do not what other people think about their behavior care about impressing (strangers) and those and want to ensure that their behavior fts the they do (their spouses friends and family). These people will be vigi Thus, the situation makes a difference in the lant about monitoring and adjusting their own behavior they display. In addition, personality is a better predictor Because of this constant monitoring, people of behavior across multiple situations than in who have a high level of this trait have a ten any one specifc situation. In each specifc sit dency to behave differently on the basis of situ uation, there could be some particular aspect ational cues. Their behavior is likely to be very of the situation that infuences behavior dra different across various situations. Looking at the way a person behaves have a low level of this trait, on the other hand, on average (across situations) allows us a look are not as concerned about ftting their behav at his/her personality and its relationship to ior to the situation. For example, a person are more likely to be consistent across situa who is conscientious may not remember to tions (around different groups of people), and complete a particular assignment at one point these consistent behaviors are judged to be in time, but over time the persons behavior infuenced by the persons personality. For example, Overall, it turns out that personality and the one person may be somewhat assertive, while situation are equally important in predicting 378 person-situation interaction behavior. The two have a similar overall infu not in others in a systematic and predictable ence on a persons behavior. Therefore, a persons char either relationship (personality or the situa acteristic behavior, thoughts, and emotions tion) with behavior allows researchers to pre are refected in the interaction between the dict behavior accurately approximately 70% person and the specifc situation. Although both are important pre differently, what is stable about peoples per dictors of behavior, either can be more useful sonality is the consistency with which they in particular instances. For example, it is more respond to particular situations in particular useful to use personality to predict a persons ways. Trait to be a better predictor of behavior in specifc theories assume that personality disposi situations if the personality characteristic is tions are stable across situations and across considered to be dominant in that person, if time. Therefore, the stability of personality is the situation is a comfortable one for the per refected in the consistency with which people son, or if the person does not care what kind behave similarly across situations. However, it is to this view, for example, an aggressive person usually diffcult to use personality to predict should, on average, behave more aggressively behavior in a specifc situation because there than a person who is not aggressive across a could be some special aspect of that situation wide range of situations and settings. Trait psy that causes the person to alter behavior radi chologists examine similarity clusters in the cally. For example, even an extremely talk personality trait descriptions people use in ative person may be quiet at the library or at a everyday language to identify the structure of funeral. The situation will play a greater role personality a method of investigation known in the prediction of behavior if there are set as the psycholinguistic approach. Over the last social rules to follow or if the person is wor four decades, this approach has revealed that ried about the impression being made. Behaving a certain way can also going behavior) than person B at parties, he/ infuence the situation. Behaving in an outgo she is expected to be higher than person B ing fashion tends to attract other people into also in the offce, when dealing with the boss, conversation. Although people did show some cross-situational consistency person-situation interaction in their behavior, the consistency was much n. Person-situation (P S) interaction refers lower than what would be expected by laypeo to the process whereby enduring personal ples intuitions as well as by the trait models. Thus, these situations varied along two ence in personality if not in cross-situational dimensions: whether the interaction was posi consistency Thus, verbally aggressive above the average when the situation was aggregated out by taking warned by adults but lower than average when the average of peoples behavior across situ approached prosocially by peers, another one ations to minimize this noise. Researchers was highest in comparison to others when who adopted the P S perspective, however, approached positively by a peer, but not when raised the question of whether this variabil warned by an adult. Thus, situation and there might be order in what seems to behavior profles were found to be stable, be chaos. P S researchers refer to the vari refecting each childs distinctive situation ability of behavior across situations within a behavior signature.

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While the participants viewed the words and which the item had ben previously viewed) symptoms you have cancer buy 200mg sustiva free shipping. Later medications safe for dogs sustiva 600 mg without a prescription, outside a function of whether they were properly recollected symptoms hyperthyroidism order generic sustiva on-line, of the scanner symptoms 9dpiui purchase sustiva amex, they were tested on their memory for and whether the source was correctly identifed. At encoding, participants viewed a series of words and made either an animacy (animate versus not animate) or size (large versus small) judgment for each word, depending on the color of that word. Later, in a test at retrieval after the scan session, participants made two decisions about the items presented, which included the old items and new items never seen before. First, participants were asked to indicate whether and how well (how confdently) they recognized the items. Second, for each word they had to make a source memory judgment (had it previously been pre sented in red or in green Correctly recollected The interesting part of this study was that neuroimag words activated regions of both the hippocampus and ing data were collected during the retrieval phase of the the posterior parahippocampal cortex (Figure 9. This evidence that the medial temporal sorted according to whether the participants actually rec lobe, including the hippocampus proper, was activated ollected the item, were only familiar with the item, were during encoding fts well with evidence fom studies in sure they had not sen the word before, or were mistaken animals and patients with amnesia. The neuroimag gested that the hippocampus is important for the for ing results were clear: During retrieval, the hippocampus mation of new long-term memories. Tus, one problem was selectively active only for items that were actually with hippocampal damage may be an inabilit to encode correctly recollected (Figure 9. This fnding strongly suggests that the hip and colleagues also observed that regions of the fontal pocampus is involved in retrieval for episodic memories cortex were activated during encoding (Figure 9. Retrieval and the Hippocampus Recollection, Familiarity, and the Medial Temporal Lobe The hippocampus is also involved in the retrieval of infor mation fom long-term memory. In 1999, John methods were used to reveal that the hippocampus is ac Aggleton and Malcolm Brown (1999) proposed that tivated when information is correctly recollected (Eldridge encoding processes that merely identif an item as being et al. Participants in this task memorized a list of familiar, and encoding processes that correctly identif words. No other task was involved at the encoding stage, the item as having ben sen before (recollection), each and no memory strategy was suggested. For example, in the a new list consisting of previously studied (old) and un study of retrieval described in the previous section and studied (new) words and were asked, one by one, if they illustrated in Figure 9. Two regions in the medial temporal lobe that exhibited subsequent recol lection effects were the posterior hippocampus and the posterior parahippocampal cortex. Imaging Human Memory | 405 a Region of interest Correct recollection b Correct familiarity Correct rejection Miss Left hippocampus Right hippocampus 0. The red outline of the region of interest in the left hippocam pus is based on anatomical landmarks. The hippocampus was activated by correctly recollected words (solid red line) but not by words that the participants had previ ously seen but could not recollect, indicating that the words merely seemed familiar (solid black line). No hippocampal activity occurred for words that were correctly identifed as new (not seen previously; dashed red line) nor for errors in which the participant did not remember the words (dashed black line) despite having seen them previously. Such data raised the question of mation fom all over the cortex converge on the medial what brain regions are involved in episodic versus nonepi temporal lobe regions surrounding the hippocampus, but sodic (familiarit-based) memory encoding and retrieval. Informa The process of encoding episodic memory involves tion about the features of items (what an item is) com encoding an event and binding it to a time and place, as ing fom unimodal sensory regions of neocortex passes we hinted at in the rodent studies. In contrast, information who you saw, where you saw them, and with whom you fom polymodal neocortical areas about where some went. This memory may be distinguished fom memories thing is located passes through the more posterior parts of other rock concerts, other events held at the same of the parahippocampal cortex. Both information tpes place, and other places you have ben with the same project into the entorhinal cortex but do not converge fiend. One study that nicely makes this representations of items with their context (Diana et al. They showed study able to relate the to tpes of information about some participants pictures of scenes during an encoding ses thing that the individual encounters. Two days later, researchers tested the participants is referred to as relational memory. In that showed the same activit patern as in the Ranganath study, participants were required to make source memory encoding study. The hippocampus was activated only for judgments related to episodic memory (se Figures 9. Regions of the medial temporal lobe, fdence about whether they had sen the item beforea like the perirhinal cortex, that are located outside the hip measure of familiarit. Combining these of memory and that these diferent forms of memory results with those in the previous paragraph, this work (recollective experience versus familiarit) are supported demonstrates a double dissociation in the medial temporal by diferent subdivisions of this brain region. The hippo lobe for encoding diferent forms of memory: one medial campus is involved in encoding and retrieval for episodic temporal lobe mechanism for recognition based on the memories that are recollected, whereas areas outside recollection of episodic (source) information involving the hippocampus, especially the perirhinal cortex, sup a Higher activity Perirhinal cortex As recognition con dence increases, so does perirhinal cortex activity. The graph shows that as recognition confdence increases, activity in the perirhinal cortex also increases. Imaging Human Memory | 407 a Bilateral anterior parahippocampal gyrus b Bilateral hippocampus 0. The researchers evaluated suggest that the nature of the representations should be memory performance for thre diferent tpes of relational considered in distinguishing bet n memory systems tasks: spatial, associative, and sequential. Tose with hippocampal-only to as epiodic information that leads to recollective damage were impaired on all of the relational tasks, but experiences is relational memory, so called because we can not on the single-item recollection task. Multiple neuroimaging studies show in es) in which it was previously encountered and know that it creased hippocampal activation when the relationship be is diferent fom the present encounter. For instance, if you ten items is being evaluated; in contrast, when an item live in Los Angeles, you may se Tom Hanks drive past in is being individually encoded, activit is not observed in the a Porsche and know that youve sen him beforenot in hippocampus but is sen in other medial temporal lobe cor a Porsche, but in a movie. Neal Cohen and his colleagues tical regions, especially in the perirhinal cortex (Davachi & (Ryan et al. The projections of what and where changing relationships in the scenes, even when they were information fom the neocortex into the hippocampus unaware of them, as demonstrated by their altered paterns described in the previous section are matched by a similar of eye movements (Figure 9. In contrast, patients with outfow fom the hippocampus that travels back to the amnesia as a result of hippocampal damage were insensitive entorhinal cortex, then to the perirhinal and parahippo to the changes (Figure 9. Tese researchers have ar campal cortex, and then to the neocortical areas that pro gued, therefore, that medial temporal amnesia is a disorder vided the inputs to the neocortex in the frst place. You of relational memory and is distinct fom episodic memory, may already have guessed the role of this fedback sys which requires conscious awareness. Cohen and colleagues tem in memory storage and retrieval, and some fndings amassed additional evidence to support their argument in fom neuroimaging studies during retrieval may back up a study on amnesic patients with damage limited to the your guess. Eye movements (red lines) and fxations (white crosses) are shown superimposed on the same scene (bottom pan els) under two conditions. At frst viewing, it contained two people in a critical region (top panel), while in the second it did not (bottom panel). The critical region where the people were located is outlined by the blue rectangle (the box was not on the screen; it was placed in the fgure to indicate the region of interest in this test). Both control groups showed more fxations in the critical region when the scene changed, as in b, than when it did not change, as in a. Mark Wheler and his colleagues at Washington during retrieval of sounds, diferent areas of the neocortex Universit in St. Louis (2000) investigated brain regions that had ben activated during the perception of sounds involved in the retrieval of diferent tpes of information. In each case, during memory retrieval the They asked participants to learn a set of sounds (auditory modalit-specifc regions of activit in the neocortex were stimuli) or pictures (visual stimuli) during a 2-day encoding subsets of the areas activated by presentation of the percep period. Each sound or picture was paired with a writen label tual information alone, when no memory task was required describing the item. In were later stages of visual and auditory association cortex, the perceptual test, stimuli (label plus sound or picture) were where incoming signals would have ben perceptually well presented and brain activit was measured to identif brain processed. In the These results suggest that the specifc relational in memory retrieval test, only the word label was presented formation for items stored in long-term memory may be and the participant pressed a buton to indicate whether the coded during retrieval by reactivation of the original neo item was associated with a sound or a picture. In subsequent work, Wheler pictures, regions of neocortex that had ben activated dur and colleagues (M. Sometimes, however, something more their semantic content but differed in sensory content, these surprising occurs: We remember events that never hap results suggest that the hippocampus is involved in the re pened. Whereas forgetting has been a topic of research trieval of semantic information, whereas the parahippocam for more than a century, memory researchers did not pal gyrus is involved in the retrieval of sensory information.

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The patients who have had this procedure have ben studied lesion is believed to symptoms 32 weeks pregnant discount 200 mg sustiva mastercard disrupt certain mental operations extensively medicine lux buy sustiva master card, providing many insights into the roles of the while having litle or no impact on others symptoms 2 dpo 600 mg sustiva with mastercard. Tese sively interconnected symptoms torn rotator cuff order sustiva on line, however, so just as with lesion stud studies are discussed more extensively in Chapter 4. Examples are found in cur impact might be associated with a region of the brain that rent treatments for Parkinsons disease, a movement dis was not itself directly damaged. Although evidence that the brain is a plastic device: Neural function the standard treatment is medication, the efcacy of the is constantly being reshaped by our experiences, and such drugs can change over time and even produce debilitating reorganization can be quite remarkable following neuro side efects. Tese devices produce mechanic to understand that cuting the spark plug wires continuous electrical signals that stimulate neural activi or cuting the gas line will cause an automobile to stop t. Dramatic and sustained improvements are observed in running, but this does not mean that spark plug wires and many patients (Hamani et al. Tere are side efects, in part because more than one tpe Many insights can be gleaned fom careful observa of neuron is stimulated. Optogenetics methods promise tions of people with neurological disorders, but as we will to provide an alternative method in which clinicians can se throughout this book, such methods are, in essence, control neural activit. Concerns like these point to the ned for man applications, this method has ben used to explore methods that involve the study of the normal brain. Early work here suggests that the most and nonhuman, is used, as we have already noted, as a efective treatments may not result fom the stimulation control when studying participants with brain injuries. This fnding underscores that many investigate the efects of transient perturbations to the diseases of the nervous system are not usually related to normal brain, which we discuss next. Genetic methods, used in animal models, provide is used to examine structurefunction relationships. Genomic analysis can also help identif that damage to a particular brain region may result in a the genetic abnormalities that contribute to certain dis selective defcit of a certain cognitive operation. And of course, optogenet Surgical procedures have been used to treat neurologi- ics, which opened this chapter, has enormous potential cal disorders such as epilepsy or Parkinsons disease. Methods to Perturb Neural Function | 87 study looked at the efect of dopamine on decision making Pharmacology when a potential monetary reward or loss was involved. The release of neurotransmiters at neuronal synapses One group of participants received the dopamine recep and the resultant responses are critical for information tor antagonist haloperidol; another received the recep transfer fom one neuron to the next. Each symbol was associated with a certain un that have a similar structure to a neurotransmiter and known probabilit of gain or no gain, loss or no loss, or no mimic its action, or antagonist drugs, those that bind to gain or loss. For instance, a squiggle stood an 80% chance receptors and block or dampen neurotransmission. Tese re Besides being used in studies of chronic drug users, sults are consistent with the hypothesis that dopamine has neurologically intact populations are used for studies a selective efect on reward-driven learning. For instance, the neurotransmiter dopamine is known The entire body and brain are awash in the drug, so it is to be a key ingredient in reward-seking behavior. The selected stimulus, circled in red, is associated with an 80% chance of winning $1 and a 20% chance of winning nothing. Participants given haloperidol (red), a dopamine antagonist, were slower in leaning to choose the gain stimuli. The drugs did not affect how quickly participants learned to avoid the stimuli associated with a cost. In addition, the potential impact of The area of neural activation will depend on the shape the drug on other sites in the body and the dilution efect and positioning of the coil. In some animal studies, direct the area of primary activation can be constrained to injection of a study drug to specifc brain regions helps about 1. The group that had their D1 receptors studies, the behavioral consequences of the stimulation blocked turned out to act like couch potatoes, but the rats are used to shed light on the normal function of the dis with blocked D2 receptors were willing to make the ef rupted tissue. Tus, performance can be compared bet n stimu lated and nonstimulated conditions in the same individual. The synchronized connected to a source of powerful electrical capaci discharge of the underlying visual neurons interferes with tors. The timing bet n the onset of current through the coil, generating a magnetic feld. In the leter identifcation task, the duces a physiological current that causes neurons to fre person will err only if the stimulation occurs bet n 70 (Figure 3. Both the coil and the participant have affxed to them a tracking device to monitor the head and coil position in real time. Methods to Perturb Neural Function | 89 become hyperpolarized and are less likely to fre. If repeatedly ap participant attempts to name letters that are briefy presented on the screen. Visual perception is markedly disrupted when the beneft can be prolonged the pulse occurs 80120 ms after the letter due to disruption of neural activity in the visual cortex. An appealing feature of these methods is that re Transcranial Direct Current searchers can design experiments to test specifc functional Stimulation hypotheses. The early Greks can serve as their own controls, since the efects of these and Romans used electric torpedo fsh, which can deliver stimulation procedures are transient. Todays elec trical stimulation uses a much smaller current (12 mV) The start of the 21st century witnessed the climax of one that fels like a tingling or itchy feling when it is turned of the great scientifc challenges: the mapping of the hu on or of. Scientists now possess a complete record trodesan anode and a cathodeplaced on the scalp. We have Physiological studies show that neurons under the an only begun to understand how these genes code for all ode become depolarized. In essence, we elevated state of excitabilit, making them more likely now have a map containing the secrets to many treasures: to initiate an action potential when a stimulus or move What causes people to grow old Deciphering this map is an im neuroscientists are now working with many animal models, posing task that will take years of intensive study. As noted earlier, diseases such in studies with model organisms like the fuit fy and mouse, as Huntingtons disease are clearly heritable. By analyz to species with reproductive propensities that allow many ing individuals genetic codes, scientists can now predict generations to be spawned in a relatively short time. Moreover, by iden sequenced, which has provided researchers the opportunit tifing the genetic locus of this disorder, scientists hope to explore the functional role of many genes. A key meth to devise techniques to alter the aberrant genes, either by odology is to develop genetically altered animals, using what modifing them or by fguring out a way to prevent them are referred to as knockout procedures. Sci stand other aspects of normal and abnormal brain func entists can then study the knockout strains to explore the tion through the study of genetics. For example, weaver mice have long known that many aspects of cognitive function are a knockout strain in which Purkinje cells, the prominent are heritable. For example, controlling mating paterns cell tpe in the cerebellum, fail to develop. As the name im on the basis of spatial-learning performance allows the plies, these mice exhibit coordination problems. Rats that quickly learn to navigate mazes are have ben used to create strains that lack a single tpe likely to have ofspring with similar abilities, even if the of postsynaptic receptor in specifc brain regions, while ofspring are raised by rats that are slow to navigate the leaving intact other tpes of receptors. This fnding should not be in cells within a subregion of the hippocampus (Wilson taken to mean that our intelligence or behavior is geneti & Tonegawa, 1997; also se Chapter 9). Maze-bright rats perform quite poorly these receptors exhibited poor learning on a variet of if raised in an impoverished environment. The truth memory tasks, providing a novel approach for linking surely refects complex interactions bet n the environ memory with its molecular substrate (Figure 3. In a ment and genetics (se The Cognitive Neuroscientists sense, this approach constitutes a lesion method, but at a Toolkit: Correlation and Causation). When normal mice are placed in the same context 24 hours later, they show strong learning by the large increase in the percentage of freezing responses. Structural Analysis of the Brain | 91 Neurogenetic research is not limited to identifing the role of each gene individually. Complex brain func Structural Analysis of tion and behavior arise fom interactions bet n many the Brain genes and the environment. As our genetic tools become more sophisticated, scientists will be beter positioned to We now turn to the methods used to analyze brain struc detect the polygenetic infuences on brain function and ture. The densi Brain function can be perturbed by drugs, magnetic t of biological material varies, and the absorption of X-ray or electrical stimulation, and through genetic radiation is correlated with tissue densit. Finally, a computer constructs a thre dimensional X-ray image fom the series of 2-D images.

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It lies extraordinarily far forward medicine 8 pill purchase sustiva pills in toronto, as can be ascertained from a comparison with the other brain maps; its total extent is much less medicinebg generic 200 mg sustiva with amex, especially on the lateral surface medicine 20 trusted sustiva 600mg. The two individual fields form indis tinct borders with each other and their structures overlap at the transitional zones as indicated in the drawing medicine 6 year in us sustiva 600 mg. It is worthy of note that the giant pyramidal area (area 4) lies to a great extent on the medial surface and stretches far posteriorly on the dorsal bank of the splenial sulcus, a feature that I have not been able to demonstrate in any other animals. On the lateral surface both areas 4 and 6 form a sort of wedge-like zone that reaches to the superior margin of the insula, as we have become accustomed to see in the animals described above; area 6 extends as far as the frontal pole. The postcentral region continues caudally from the previous region after a fairly sharp border marked by the quite sudden reappearance of an inner granular layer in the sections. It is composed of a single structural area (1) that is homologous to the combined areas 1 to 3 in the primate, for reasons that were explained earlier. It is true that one finds a rather different cytoarchitecture in its anterior portion from that in its posterior part in that more, larger pyramidal cells are present in layer V, corresponding to the situation in the preparietal area of primates and prosimians. Nevertheless a separate area 5 cannot be distinguished, as the structural changes from anterior to posterior progress quite gradually and one can therefore never say where the border between the two areas might be. Moreover, the same situation exists with respect to the transition to the postcentral region. It is equally gradual so that the question arises whether it would not be more correct to regard the whole zone situated caudal to the agranular precentral region as a single entity. Its overall structure is very similar; in spite of this there are architectonic features in its anterior portions, that is to say just posterior to the agranular area 4, that are more related to areas 1 to 3 of primates and thus justify a separation from the parietal area. Description of individual brain maps 155 the occipital region consists mainly of the striate area area 17. This once again represents a typical end-cap applied over the occipital pole, approximate ly equally distributed between the medial and lateral surfaces. Medially it reaches the splenial sulcus so that this sulcus forms the exact anterior border, while laterally there is no morphological border. Both laterally and medially a rather irregularly structured band-like strip follows the whole extent of its anterior boundary, a coronal field that spans the entire hemisphere just like the occipital or preoccipital area of primates. Based on the similarity of position it would be quite justifiable to consider this area as homologous to the occipital area area 18 (and 19) of primates. The first thing to note about the insular region is that it lies entirely on the free surface and includes a relatively much larger part of the cortical surface than in the higher orders described above. It includes a very wide zone directly above the olfactory or piriform lobe, stretching anteriorly to close to the frontal pole. The individual areas that make up the whole region are not shown separately in the brain map; however, it deserves special mention that even in the flying fox the insular region is divisible into two subregions, a caudal granular and a rostral agranular zone. The temporal region (areas 20, 21, 22 and 35) is only weakly developed in the flying fox. Although it is clearly topically separated from the insular and hippocampal regions, its borders with the parietal and occipital cortex are not sharp. Also, only an approximate and indistinct parcellation of its individ ual areas is possible, with the exception of the heterogenetic area 35 that is situated ventrally just above the posterior rhinal sulcus. However, it is still doubtful whether it would be more accurate to include this with the structures of the piriform lobe, the more so since in other species it belongs spatially mainly or entirely to it. Apart from area 35 and perhaps area 20 their homolo gy with the homogeneous (*136) fields of other animals cannot be established with certainty. It should be noted that area 22 is related partially to the shallow sulcus that is supposed to represent a rudiment of the Sylvian sulcus. The cingulate region displays even more marked differences in field organisation from the brains described so far. Not only is the number of fields greater but also their intrinsic structure is sometimes so modified that it is impossible to identify given areas. Thus it emerges that the whole caudal half of the cingulate gyrus is taken over by the massively developed retrosplenial area that climbs far over the dorsal surface of the corpus callosum. Of these, area 23 is granular and should correspond to the posterior cingulate area (23) of other animals even if it is only a matter of relative homology. All the other areas are agranular; they are marked as 24, 25, 31a, 31b, 32a and 32b. Area 25 can be taken to be the certain homologue of area 25 of prosimians, but it is hardly possible to homologise the other struc tural zones in detail. In the organisation of the retrosplenial region essential fundamental differences from that in higher orders appear, both in the surface area of the whole region and in the number of separate individual areas. Whereas in primates and prosimians this region represents only a very small part of the cortex and is often only developed extremely rudimentarily, here it includes a very broad zone with five or six well differentiated areas (26, 29a, 29b, 30a and 30b) (*137). Obviously its massive expansion is related to the great width of the posterior portion of the cingulate gyrus. The same trend is found in the kinka jou and is even more pronounced in the rabbit and ground squirrel. What the physiological consequence of this singular development of the retrosplenial region could be can hardly even be the object of speculation for the moment. As to the individual areas, it is not possible to suggest absolute and unequivocal homologies in all cases from the cell preparations. Area 26 (the ectosplenial area) is a small wedge-shaped field below and behind the splenium of the corpus callosum and is situated in a similar position in almost all animals investigated, even if its structure varies. In the place of area 29 (the granular retrosplenial area) of primates and prosimians, there are two separate structur al types, indicated as areas 29a and 29b. Together they correspond to area 29 of higher animals and areas 29a-e of the rabbit (Figure 107). Area 30 (the agranular retrosplenial area) is, in contrast to that of the lemur and the kinkajou in which its width is relatively great, confined to a narrow strip on the anterior bank of the splenial sulcus, and can be further divided on structural grounds into two different sections, one posterior, 30a, that coincides with the vertical branch of the splenial sulcus, another anterior, 30b, that lies along the horizontal branch of this sulcus. Dorsal to area 30b, yet another narrow structural field can be distinguished lying in the deep cortex of the splenial sulcus (area 31), and whose association with either the retrosplenial region or the cingulate region must remain open; it is allotted to the latter above. The hippocampal region also displays richer differentiation than in higher orders. First, one finds a new area 48 ventral to areas 29a and 29b approximately corresponding to the isthmus and stretching over the hippocampal sulcus and containing a markedly reduced laminar organisation (heterogenetic cortex). Parallel to this area I have defined a quite narrow zone, area 49 (the parasubicular area), which is otherwise only discernible in the rabbit (Figure 107), the hedgehog and the kinkajou (Figure 105). Area 28, the heterogenetic entorhinal area, is one of the largest areas of the whole cortical surface in the flying fox; it stretches quite far over the lateral surface reaching the posterior rhinal sulcus and then separates into two subfields (28a and 28b), indicated on the map by different symbols. It is of importance that area 28 covers far less than the entire piriform lobe, but remains limited solely to its posterior half, while the anterior half, includ ing a part of the anterior olfactory lobe, is occupied by a rudimentarily devel oped cortical formation defective cortex in Meynerts sense. This region, that we name the olfactory region, is very extensive in the flying fox and we have indicated it as a special region in the map, but in the lemur it is only dis tinguishable at the extreme anterior part of the temporal pole (the unmarked white field in Figures 98 and 99). In the flying fox, in contrast, it covers most of the lateral surface of the piriform lobe and can be traced anteriorly to the vicinity of the olfactory bulb, always just ventral to the anterior rhinal sulcus. I have only been able to complete a study of the organisation of the whole cortical surface so far in one animal belonging to the carnivores, the kinkajou. A more important and indispensible task for the future is the precise cortical localisation and parcellation of the brain of the dog, and perhaps also of the cat, that is those animals that physiologists have used mainly or exclusively as experimental subjects for localisational studies. Individual important areas of dog and cat have already been described briefly (my fourth and fifth communications). The brain of the kinkajou is particularly well suited for the production of a brain map in that on the one hand it is of moderate size and is therefore not too difficult to process technically, nor is it too primitive in its organisation, and on the other hand because its sulcal arrangement is simpler than in many of the larger carnivores 11). As a macrosmatic animal the kinkajou possesses, like the flying fox, an olfactory lobe of sizeable proportions and a strongly developed piriform lobe. Also, the cingulate gyrus, and especially its retrosplenial part, is strikingly wide 11) the sulci of the brain of the kinkajou are, medially: the splenial sulcus (spl), which contin ues as the cruciate sulcus (cr) at the superior cortical margin, the genual sulcus, the posterior end of the posterior rhinal sulcus (rhp) and the hippocampal sulcus (h); laterally: the anterior and posterior rhinal sulci (rha, rhp), that unite with the main stem of the Sylvian sulcus (s), the presylvian sulcus (ps), the cruciate sulcus (cr), the lateral and postlateral sulcus (l, pl), the coronal sulcus (co) and the suprasylvian sulcus (ss). Description of individual brain maps 159 and relatively even bigger than in the flying fox. In contrast to the flying fox, the rabbit, the ground squirrel, the hedgehog and other small rodents, the kinkajou possesses an extensive granular frontal region, like primates and prosimians. The agranular precentral region (areas 4 and 6) does not therefore reach the frontal pole, but the most anterior part of the frontal lobe is again encompassed by granular cortex with a distinct granular layer. Its position is fairly precisely determined: it lies essentially between the presylvian sulcus laterally and the genual sulcus medially, thus including the whole cortical surface on the medial and lateral sides ahead of these sulci as far as the frontal pole. However, the sulci do not form the exact boundaries; in particular the region extends partially caudally over the presylvian sulcus. Compared with the massive frontal region of man, this region represents only a minute fraction of the surface of the hemisphere and is also relatively and absolutely much smaller than in all monkeys and the bigger lemurs; nevertheless it can be demarcated as a circumscribed region of homogeneous structure. Whether, in addition to area 8, area 12 should be included in the frontal region or is better in the cingulate region, I prefer not to decide.

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