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Note: these include snowbirds who live in the south for the winter months antiviral elixir discount starlix 120 mg visa, sunbirds who live in the north during the summer months hiv infection rates in poland order starlix 120mg on-line. This also includes persons with vacation residences which they occupy for a portion of the year zinc finger antiviral protein order generic starlix on-line. Persons who are incarcerated 78 Texas Cancer Registry 2018/2019 Cancer Reporting Handbook Version 1 antiviral medication for chickenpox order genuine starlix line. Persons who are physically or mentally handicapped or mentally ill who are residents of homes, schools, hospitals, or wards c. Armed Forces-For military personnel and their family members, code the address of the military installation or surrounding community as stated by the patient. Deceased Persons Use residency information from a death certificate only when the residency from other sources is coded as unknown. If the person was a resident of a nursing home at diagnosis, use the nursing home address as the place of residence. Explanation A registry may receive the name of a facility instead of a proper street address containing the street number, name, direction, or other elements necessary to locate an address on a street file for the purpose of geocoding. Explanation Allows for the analysis of cancer clusters, environmental studies, or health services research and is useful for epidemiology purposes. If the patient resides in a rural area, record the name of the city used in the mailing address. If the patient has multiple primaries, the address may be different for subsequent primaries. Explanation It allows for analysis of geographic and environmental studies and inclusion in state and national cancer publications/studies. Record the appropriate two-letter abbreviation for state of residence at the time of diagnosis. If the patient is a resident of Canada, record the appropriate two-letter abbreviation for the country of residence at time of diagnosis/admission. If the patient has multiple primaries, the state of residence may be different for subsequent cases. If the patient has multiple tumors, the postal code may be different for each tumor. Explanation It allows for the analysis of cancer clusters, geographic or environmental studies and health services research. If recording the full nine-digit zip code, no dash should be placed between the first five and the last four digits. This website is useful in obtaining missing address information in order to record a complete address. If the patient is a resident of a foreign country at the time of diagnosis, record 88888 for the zip code. If the patient has multiple tumors, the county codes may be different for each tumor. Explanation this data item may be used for epidemiological purposes (for example: to measure the cancer burden in a particular geographical area). If the patient has multiple tumors, the country codes may be different for each tumor. Coding Instructions Enter the appropriate alpha-3-digit code for the country of residence. Document in Text Remarks-Other Pertinent Information that the social security information is unavailable. Example: 777771234 Note: All efforts must be made to obtain the complete social, but if only the last four digits are provided they now can be used in the social security number field and not just documented in the pertinent information text box. Example: the record indicates the patient was born in 1978 but no month or day is given. Note: If the complete date of birth is not available, documentation must be provided in Other Pertinent Information. If only the age of the patient is known, calculate the year of birth from age and year of diagnosis and leave the day and month of birth unknown. Example: A 50 year old patient diagnosed in 2010 is calculated to have been born in 1960. Every effort must be made to obtain this information as it is critical for analysis. The first four digits are the year, the fifth and sixth digits are the month, and the seventh and eighth digits are the day. If the patient has multiple primaries, the state of birth is the same for each tumor. Explanation Birthplace is used to ascertain ethnicity, identify special populations at risk for certain types of cancers, and for epidemiological analyses. Explanation Racial origin captures information used in research and cancer control activities comparing stage at diagnosis and/or treatment by race. Race is defined by specific physical, hereditary and cultural traditions or origins, not necessarily by birthplace, place of residence, or citizenship. Record the two-digit code to identify the primary race(s) of the patient in fields race 1, race 2, race 3, race 4, and race 5. The five race fields allow for coding of multiple races consistent with the Census 2000. Code race using the highest priority source available according to the list below (a is the highest and c is the lowest) when race is reported differently by two or more sources. Race 1 is the field used to compare with race data on cases diagnosed prior to January 1, 2000. There is a statement that the patient is Hispanic or Latino(a) and no further information is available. Example: There is a statement that Sabrina Fitzsimmons is a Latina but no further information is available. Note: Persons of Spanish or Hispanic origin may be of any race, although persons of Mexican, Central American, South American, Puerto Rican, or Cuban origin are usually White. Code race as 02 (Black) when the stated race is African-American, Black, or Negro. Code the race based on birthplace information when the race is recorded as Oriental, Mongolian, or Asian and the place of birth is recorded as China, Japan, the Philippines, or another Asian nation. If no race is stated in the medical record or available from other sources in your facility, review the documentation for a statement of a race category such as a patient described as a Japanese female. Persons of Spanish or Hispanic origin may be of any race, although persons of Mexican, Central American, South American, Puerto Rican, or Cuban origin are usually white. Do not code race from name alone, especially for females with no maiden name given. Example: Record states: the patient was Nigerian? Code race as 02 (Black) per the Appendix. Death certificate information may be used to supplement ante mortem race information only when race is unknown in the patient record or when the death certificate information is more specific. A unique race code (other than 88 or 99) can be coded only once in race 1 through race 5. Patient photographs may be used with caution to determine race in the absence of any other information. The use of photographs alone to determine race may lead to a misclassification of race. If the face sheet states Other race? and there is not more information about race in the medical record, if no further information is found, code Race 1 as 99, and code Race 2-5 as 99. Document the specified race code in the Text Remarks Other Pertinent Information field. Note: A specific race code (other than blank or 99) must not occur more than once. For example, do not code Black in race 1 for one parent and Black in race 2 for the other parent. If a patient has a Spanish last name and she is stated to be a native of Indiana, code to 99, Unknown, because nothing is known about her race. Exception is done when Race is noted as other? in face sheet; use code 99 for Race 1 and code 88 for Race 2-5. Race is defined by specific physical, heredity, and cultural traditions or origins, not necessarily by birthplace, place of residence, or citizenship.
If such material tem will be covered if not by such fee is voluminous hiv infection no fever starlix 120mg line, a summary antiviral kit purchase starlix 120mg on-line, table of and the general revenue of the State; contents hiv infection rates in south africa cheap 120mg starlix amex, and index must accompany it (11) If a unique identifier will be used as necessary to hiv infection life expectancy purchase starlix 120 mg line facilitate review. The Sec such information relating to any prod tion does not permit miscellaneous uct, produced or located in any county categories. The basis for this is that specify by name) Cattle & calves, goats, horses, hogs, mules, (c)(4)(G) provides for the fee to be set sheep & lambs, other livestock (system by the Secretary of State? but (c)(11) must specify by name) defines the latter term to include Milk, other dairy products produced on designee of the State. A State establishing a system for speci Rice, rye, wheat, other food grains (system fied products and not for all will be must specify by name) deemed to be a State that has estab Barley, corn, hay, oats, sorghum grain, other feed crops (system must specify by name) lished a central filing system? as to Cotton the specified products, and will be Tobacco deemed not to be such a State as to Flaxseed, peanuts, soybeans, sunflower other products. If they do not ries, coffee, dates, figs, grapes (& raisins), show an amount, this constitutes a rep nectarines, olives, papayas, peaches, pears, resentation that all of such product persimmons, pineapples, plums (& prunes), owned by the person in question is sub pomegranates, other noncitrus fruits (sys ject to the security interest in ques tem must specify by name) tion. If they do not specify by name) show any further identification of the Grass seeds, legume seeds, other seed crops (system must specify by name) location of the product, this con Hops, mint, popcorn, other miscellaneous stitutes a representation that all such crops (system must specify by name) product produced in each such county Greenhouse & nursery products produced on or parish, owned by such person, is sub farms (system must specify by name) ject to the security interest. Also, if a particular security reader of the information to identify interest is shown on the master list, what product owned by that person is but has been placed on it since the last subject, as distinguished from what of regular distribution of portions of that the same product owned by the same list to registrants, registrants would person is not subject. The precision not be subject to that security inter needed, in the description of the est. For example, can cattle dealers (2) and (3), and (g)(2) (C) and (D), must register to receive portions of the mas be read together. Not registering ests shown on the master list, but as to with a particular system operator has which they do not receive written no the effect, under subsections (e)(2) and tice because they have not registered (g)(2)(C), of making such persons, to receive the portion for cattle? The require (c) the effect of registration by such ment that the distribution be reg persons with a particular system is to ular? necessarily refers to an interval get them on the list for regular dis specified in advance. While sub formation about a security interest re section (c)(2)(E) (providing that dis corded in it. The basis of this, as above, tribution be made regularly as pre is that non-registrants are subject to scribed by the State) gives each State security interests recorded in a system discretion to choose the interval be whether or not they know about them, tween distributions, whatever interval and must query the system for their a State chooses will inevitably make own protection. Thus the time and method of fur shows that buyers, commission mer nishing written confirmation is discre chants, and selling agents are not in tionary with the State. The basis for this is that sub ject to the security interest in ques section (c)(2)(F) does not mention tele tion. Also, while it mentions fur the basis for this is the purpose for nishing information orally, it does not which the information is supplied, that contain any provision as to how que is, to make information available, to a ries are to be received, that is, orally, in buyer, commission merchant, or selling writing, or otherwise. The re cases, but use of them is not required quirement to amend arises when the by the legislation and is discretionary information already made available no with the State. Note the requirement of subsection (l) Such a written confirmation pur (c)(4)(D). An electronically filed State in which the intended recipient amendment need not be signed. This is based on sub ever, if an original or reproduced paper section (f) which follows provisions for document is filed, the amendment notice to buyers, and (g)(3) which fol must be signed, authorized, or other lows provisions for notice to commis wise authenticated by the debtor, and sion merchants and selling agents. Each of those provisions uses the word (d) An effective financing statement buyer? but it means intended recipi remains effective for a period of 5 years ent of notice. In interpreting those if they receive written notice of it even differences, the following would be per if they are outside that State. They do not apply to a filing in laws reflecting the farm products? ex another system. However the ance, thus whether it is a central fil terms person indebted? and debtor? ing system? as defined, could be liti in the Section refer to the person who gated and ruled on in a case involving owns a product and subjects it to a se only private parties, such as a lender curity interest, whether or not that and a buyer of a farm product. The person owes a debt to the secured only immediate effect of a finding in party. The basis for this is the purpose such a case, that a system is not a for which the information is supplied. However, others ator about a prospective seller of a would be in doubt as to whether they farm product is interested in whether could safely rely on the same system. Credits and/or debits for amounts monly known as a cash? or spot beyond these minimum and/or max market? purchase, of swine by a pack imum levels are entered into the ac er from a producer under which: count. Further, the contract specifies (1) the buyer-seller interaction that how the balance in the account affects results in the transaction and the producer and packer rights and obliga agreement on actual base price occur tions under the contract. The price paid for swine (2) the swine are scheduled for deliv before the application of any premiums ery to the packer not later than 14 days or discounts, expressed in dollars per after the date on which the swine are unit. The classification of the actual amount of the premium or contracts or risk management agree discount is known before the purchase ments for the purchase of swine com and delivery of the swine. A pur tion of the base price and the presence chase of swine by a packer in which the or absence of an accrual account or pricing determination is a formula ledger (as defined in this section). The price based on any market other than contract type categories are: the markets for swine, pork, or a pork (1) Swine or pork market formula product. The pricing determination in purchases with a ledger, cludes, but is not limited to: (2) Swine or pork market formula (1) A price formula based on one or purchases without a ledger, more futures or options contracts; (3) Other market formula purchases (2) A price formula based on one or with a ledger, more feedstuff markets, such as the (4) Other market formula purchases market for corn or soybeans; or without a ledger, (3) A base price determination using (5) Other purchase arrangements more than one market as its base with a ledger, and where at least one of those markets (6) Other purchase arrangements would be defined as an other market without a ledger. A pur a mathematical formula under which chase of swine by a packer that is not the price established for a specified a negotiated purchase, swine or pork market serves as the basis for the for market formula purchase, or other mula. Any person engaged in the An account held by a packer on behalf business of buying swine in commerce of a producer that accrues a running for purposes of slaughter, of manufac positive or negative balance as a result turing or preparing meats or meat food of a pricing determination included in products from swine for sale or ship a contract that establishes a minimum ment in commerce, or of marketing and/or maximum level of base price meats or meat food products from paid. Credits and/or debits for amounts swine in an unmanufactured form act beyond these minimum and/or max ing as a wholesale broker, dealer, or imum levels are entered into the ac distributor in commerce. For purposes of distin least 100,000 swine per year, based on guishing among contracts to determine plant capacity information. Any person engaged, either a single example, contracts will be con directly or through an intermediary, in sidered to be the same if they are iden the business of selling swine to a pack tical with respect to all of the fol er for slaughter (including the sale of lowing four example-contract criteria: swine from a packer to another pack (1) Base price or determination of er). A porcine animal raised to be (2) Application of a ledger or accrual a feeder pig, raised for seedstock, or account (including the terms and con raised for slaughter. Example con ity specified in the definition of packer tracts and notifications required by in 206. Electronic submission do I need to provide and when are they may be by any form of electronic due? Each packer must send, to the transmission that has been determined Grain Inspection, Packers and Stock to be acceptable to the Administrator. Each packer must send a separate (f) What information from the swine monthly report for each plant that has contract library will be made available to the slaughtering capacity specified in the public? Geographic regions will Saturday, Sunday, or federal holiday, be defined in such a manner to provide the monthly report is due no later than as much information as possible while the close of the next business day fol maintaining confidentiality in accord lowing the 15th. The monthly (g) How can I review information from report that each packer files must be the swine contract library? Existing con longer a valid example due to contract tracts are contracts the packer cur changes, expiration, or withdrawal? Each rently is using for the purchase of packer must submit a new example swine for slaughter at each plant. Available con represents any existing or available tracts are the contracts the packer is contract (expired or withdrawn). Each currently making available to pro packer must submit these example ducers, or is making available for re contracts and notifications within one newal to currently contracted pro business day of the change, expiration, ducers, for the purchase of swine for or withdrawal. On the month ly report, a packer will indicate each (Approved by the Office of Management and contract type, as defined in 206. Each (a) Do I need to provide monthly re packer must provide an estimate of the ports? Information re committed will be reported by contract ported under this section may be re type as defined in 206. Elec or circumstances specified by clauses tronic submission may be by any form in any existing contracts that could re of electronic transmission that has sult in an increase in the estimates been determined to be acceptable to specified in paragraph (c)(3) of this sec the Administrator. Information in the report must estimate expected and potential will be aggregated and reported by geo deliveries based on the best informa graphic regions. The monthly may have been previously reported, report will provide the following infor current estimates of deliveries re mation: ported as required by paragraphs (c)(3) (i) the existing contract types for and (c)(5) of this section must be based each geographic region. The report will indicate the swine that potentially could be deliv number of swine committed by geo ered during each of the next 6 and 12 graphic reporting region and by con months if all expansion clauses in cur tract type. The report (iv) the types of conditions or cir will indicate the sum of estimated cumstances as reported by packers maximum potential deliveries by geo that could result in expansion in the graphic reporting region and by con numbers of swine to be delivered under tract type.
But also rises for parasites where in the world were they raised this could be a cause? Expensive and less accurate than skin tests hiv infection one night stand purchase 120mg starlix otc, but useful if skin tests not possible hiv infection without fever cheap starlix 120 mg visa, history of anaphylaxis Challenge tests? In small kids antiviral list cheap 120mg starlix mastercard, removing food allergens from diet will improve severe eczema but not in adults? Inhalation of cold air hiv infection rates msm purchase discount starlix line, histamine or exercise may be useful in assessing bronchial hyperreactivity in asthma Contact Allergy? Difficult to distinguish between allergic and irritant reactions Diseases caused by Antibodies Antibodies against tissue antigens? Usually auto-antibodies: but may be a foreign antigen that is immunologically cross-reactive with a component of self-tissues? Parakeratosis: Nuclei are seen in the stratum corneum (would normally have died off, eg psoriasis)? Following rupture of the bullae, a moist red surface remains and varnish like crust appears? Treatment: flucloxacillin plus burn treatment (including fluid balance) Skin 315 Folliculitis? If surrounding cellulitis or if on face then need iv antibiotics Cellulitis and Erysipelas? Treatment: S Pyogenes still very susceptible to penicillin Diabetic Foot infections? Usually in children, for example from cows, dogs, cats or mice Clinical Description? To hands by itching, where it presents with a dry, hot rash on one palm, with well defined lesions with a scaling edge? The changes occur distally, and move back to the nail fold (compared with psoriasis, which is symmetrical and moves distally from the nail fold)? In young adults, causes hypo or hyper-pigmented macules with powdery scale, on upper trunk, upper arms and neck. Consider in any patient where isolated, itching, dry and scaling lesions occur for no reason. Less common: Trichophyton tonsurans, Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton erinacei? Fungi consist of thread-like hyphae that invade keratin (yeasts do not have hyphae). When immune response is impaired, superficial infections may invade deeper tissues Management? Papova virus: Papillary lesion + polyoma (lots of them) + vacuolation of cells containing the virus? Treatment: avoid wet work, treat eczema, dying agent, systemic antibiotic if bacterial Pitted Keratolysis? Treatment: keep feet dry, topical erythromycin, systemic tetracyclines Pityriasis Rosea? Differential: eczema, psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, tinea versicolor Candidiasis? Common in infants either mouth (esp inside checks) and in nappy area, maybe on hands if sucked. Where to find them: around the hairline at the back of the neck, behind the ears, on the crown? Treat if you find a live insect or an egg within 1 cm of the scalp (hair grows 1 cm a month, so more than 1 cm from head means they? Formal definition: pattern of inflammatory response of the skin which can be defined histologically by the presence of a predominantly lymphohistiocytic infiltrate around the upper dermal blood vessels, associated with spongiosis (= oedema between keratinocytes) and varying degrees of acanthosis. Atopic skin has lower threshold to irritation (eg soaps) and is more prone to staph infection? Increased tendency to: dry skin, urticaria, pityriasis alba, keratosis pilaris, irritant contact dermatitis, etc Pathogenesis? Lotion for scalp, ointment for dry areas (may cause folliculitis), cream th th 320 4 and 5 Year Notes? Scalp, palms and soles: can tolerate very potent steroids (eg betamethasone diproprionate)? Body and limbs: potent for short periods (a week or two), mild to moderate as maintenance? In adults = allergy to yeast (Pityrosporum ovale) which arrive with grease gland activation at puberty? Differentiate from endogenous on the basis of history, distribution and maybe allergy testing, not morphology Contact Irritant Dermatitis? Irritant: a substance which induces dermatitis in anyone if applied in sufficient concentration for long enough? Irritants include: acids, alkalis, solvents, soaps, detergents, enzymes, abrasives? Type 4 cell mediated immune reaction (see Allergy and Hypersensitivity Disorders, page 309)? Often takes repeated exposure, so no previous symptoms may not be significant (same for type 1 reactions). Common allergens: nickel (eg pierced ears), rubber additives, plants, chromate in cement, hairdressing chemicals, perfumes, May be a form of intertrigo, can be associated with atopic or seborrheic dermatosis th th 322 4 and 5 Year Notes? May be infected with candida or staph, may be folate deficiency, a frequent complication of Roaccutane treatment Nappy Rash Napkin Dermatitis? Treatment: frequent changing, carefully washing, protective cream Differential: Candidiasis? Flexures involved + satellite lesions or superficial pustules on a background of erythema? Idiopathic Guttate hypomelanosis: pale spots in the shape and distribution of largish freckles on sun damaged skin? Overgrowth of melanocytes in nests along the junction of the dermis and epidermis. Uncontrolled proliferation without malignancy (> 100 with at least one Dysplastic more or a mole > 0. Depigmented symmetrical halo around the mole, but the mole is normal (cf depigmented melanoma where pigmented lesion is not normal and not central)? Usually on face, tan macule that slowly enlarges and develops a geographic shape, multicoloured in time. Spitz naevus: appears in early childhood as a firm, round red or reddish brown nodule. Either around the base of a hair follicle or from trauma (eg on a builders hands) Skin 325? Incidence with age, sun exposure, familial tendency, often associated with skin tags? Decreasing pressure: change of positioning, padding, alternating air cell mattresses? Malignant ulcer: eg basal cell carcinoma (pearly translucent edge), squamous cell carcinoma (hard everted edge), etc? Neuropathic ulcer: painless penetrating ulcer on the sole of the foot due to peripheral neuropathy (eg diabetes, leprosy)? Underlying systemic disease: Diabetes, pyoderma gangrenosum, rheumatoid arthritis, lymphoma Inflammatory skin lesions Psoriasis? Small flaccid blisters, rupture leaving erythematous lesion, heals with crusting and scarring. Smaller, localised, sturdy, grape-like blisters, generally rest of skin remains in tact. May have only urticarial lesions with no blisters, or just vesicles, or eczema like appearance?
Leistner hiv viral infection symptoms buy generic starlix 120 mg on line, Shafu: a novel dried meat product of China based on hurdle-technology hiv infection heterosexual male purchase generic starlix pills, Fleischwirtsch antiviral medication for herpes discount starlix 120mg amex. Leistner hiv infection rate in botswana starlix 120mg overnight delivery, Traditionelle Fleischerzeugnisse von China und deren Optimierung durch Hurden-Technologie, Fleischwirtsch. Zhu, Developments in the theory of food preservation and its applications in foreign countries, Meat Res. Leistner, Effects of sodium lactate and storage temperature on growth and survival of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella in Chinese sausage, Chinese Food Sci. Hossain, Technological Innovation in Manufacturing Dudh Churpi, PhD Thesis, University of North Bengal, Siliguri, India, 1994, 122 pp. Ratkowsky, Predictive Microbiology: Theory and Application, Research Studies Press Ltd. Kitic, Mummification in ancient Egypt: an old example of tissue preservation by hurdle technology, Lebensm. This is illustrated by the so-called hurdle effect, first introduced by Leistner . The hurdle effect is of fundamental importance for the preservation of foods, since the hurdles in a stable product control microbial spoilage, food poisoning, as well as desired fermentation processes [1,2]. Leistner and cowork ers acknowledged that the hurdle effect illustrates only the well-known fact that complex interactions of temperature, water activity, pH, redox potential, etc. From an understanding of the hurdle effect, hurdle technology  was derived, which allows improve ments in the safety and quality of foods using deliberate and intelligent combinations of hurdles. Over the years insight into the hurdle effect has been broadened and the application of hurdle technology extended. In industrialized countries, hurdle technology is currently of particular interest for minimal-processed, convenience foods, whereas in developing countries foods storable without refrigeration, due to stabilization by hurdle technology, are at present of paramount importance. The application of deliberate and intelli gent hurdle technology is increasing rapidly worldwide. This concept was also referred to as food preser vation by combined methods, however, now the term hurdle technology is most often used. The hurdle technology concept proved successful, as an intelli gent combination of hurdles secures microbial stability and safety as well as the sensory quality of foods [6,7], it provides convenient and healthy foods to the consumer, and is cost-effective for producers since it demands less energy during production and storage. In some of the preservation methods mentioned, these parameters are of major importance, and in others they are only secondary hurdles [2,6]. The critical values of these parameters for the death, survival, or growth of microorganisms in foods have been determined in recent decades and are now the basis of food preservation. However, it must be kept in mind that the critical value of a particular parameter changes if other preservative factors are pres ent in food. For instance, the heat resistance of bacteria increases at low aw and decreases at low pH and in the presence of some preservatives, whereas a low Eh increases the inhibition of microorganisms caused by a reduced aw. Furthermore, as mentioned earlier, the microbial stability and safety of many foods are based on the combined effects of hurdles. For instance, mildly heated canned foods (?half-preserved? or three-quarter-preserved) need refrigeration during storage, and fermented sausages are only stable and safe if both the aw and the pH are in an appropriate range. Therefore, in food preservation the combined effect of preservative factors must be taken into account. However, it should be mentioned that the hurdle effect is, for instance, important for the ultraclean or aseptic packaging of foods, because if there are only few microorganisms present at the start, then a few or low hurdles are sufficient for the stability of the product. The number and intensity of hurdles needed for microbial stability are also lower if the microorganisms present are sublethally injured, because then they lack vitality? and thus are easier to inhibit. In con trast, a food rich in nutrients and vitamins will foster the growth of microorganisms (the booster? or trampoline? effect), and thus the hurdles in such foods must be enhanced, otherwise they will be over come. The latter also happens if due to bad hygiene too many undesirable microorganisms are initially present, then the usual hurdles inherent to a product may be unable to prevent spoilage or food poison ing. A better understanding of the occurrence and interaction of different preservative factors (hurdles) in foods is the basis for improvements in food preservation. If the hurdles for a food are known, the micro bial stability and safety of this food might be optimized by changing the intensity or quality of these hur dles. From an understanding of the hurdle effect, hurdle technology has been derived , which means that hurdles are deliberately combined in the preservation of traditional and novel foods. Using an intelligent mix of hurdles, it is possible to improve not only the microbial stability and safety, but also the sensory and nutritive qualities, as well as the economic aspects, of a food. It is important that the water content Update on Hurdle Technology for Mild and Effective Preservation of Foods 897 in the product be compatible with the microbial stability, and if an increased aw is compensated by other hurdles (pH, Eh, etc. But now, owing to the application of hurdle technology, pet foods are microbiologically stable at ambient temperatures with an aw of 0. Hurdle technology is increas ingly used for food design in industrialized and developing countries for optimizing traditional foods and for making new products according to needs. For instance, if energy preservation is the goal, then energy consuming hurdles, such as refrigeration, are replaced by other hurdles (aw, pH, or Eh) that do not demand energy but still ensure a stable and safe food . More recent examples related to the application of hurdle technology will be given in subsequent sections of this chapter. The feasible responses of the microorganisms to such a hos tile environment determine whether they grow or die. More basic research is needed in this area, because a better understanding of the physiological basis for growth, survival, and death of microorganisms in food products could open new dimensions for food preservation . Furthermore, such an understand ing would be the scientific basis for an efficient application of hurdle technology in the preservation of foods. Advances have been made by considering the homeostasis, metabolic exhaustion, and stress reac tions of microorganisms, as well as by introducing the concept of multitarget preservation for gentle yet effective preservation of foods [7,9]. Homeostasis is the tendency to uniformity and stability in the internal status of organisms. For instance, the maintenance of a defined pH within narrow limits is a fea ture and prerequisite of living organisms, and this applies to higher organisms as well as to microorgan isms. Much is already known about homeostasis in higher organisms at the molecular, subcellular, cellular, and systemic levels in the fields of pharmacology and medicine . This knowledge should be transferred to microorganisms important for the poisoning and spoilage of foods. In food preservation, the homeostasis of microorganisms is a key phenomenon, which deserves much attention, because if the homeostasis of these microorganisms is disturbed by preservative factors (hurdles) in foods, they will not multiply, i. Thus, food preservation is achieved by disturbing the homeostasis of microorganisms in a food tem porarily or permanently . In most foods microorganisms are operating homeostatically in order to react to envi ronmental stresses imposed by the preservation procedures applied. The most useful procedures employed to preserve foods are effective in overcoming various homeostatic mechanisms the microor ganisms have evolved to survive extreme environmental stresses . The repair of a disturbed home ostasis demands much energy, and thus the restriction of energy supply inhibits repair mechanisms in microbial cells and leads to a synergistic effect of preservative factors (hurdles). Energy restriction for microorganisms is, for example, caused by anaerobic conditions, such as vacuum or modified-atmosphere packaging of foods. Such interference with the homeostasis of microorganisms or entire microbial populations provides an attrac tive and logical focus for improvements in food-preservation techniques . This was first observed in experiments with mildly heated (95?C core temperature) liver sausage adjusted to different water activities by the addition of salt and fat, and the product was inoculated with Clostridium sporogenes and stored at 37?C. Clostridial spores that survived the heat treatment vanished in the product during storage if the products were stable . The most likely expla nation is that bacterial spores that survive the heat treatment are able to germinate in these foods under less favorable conditions than those under which vegetative bacteria are able to multiply . Thus, the spore counts in stable hurdle-technology foods actually decrease during storage of the products, especially in unrefrigerated foods. Also during studies in our laboratory with Chinese dried meat products the same behavior of microorganisms was observed. If these meats were contaminated after processing with staphylococci, salmonellae, or yeasts, the counts of these microorganisms on stable products decreased quite fast during unrefrigerated storage, especially on meats with a water activity close to the threshold for microbial growth. Latin American researchers [15,16] observed the same phenomenon in studies with high-moisture fruits products, because the counts of a variety of bacteria, yeasts, and molds, which sur vived the mild heat treatment, decreased fast in the products during unrefrigerated storage, since the hur dles applied (pH, aw, sorbate, and sulfite) did not allow growth. A general explanation for this surprising behavior might be that vegetative microorganisms which can not grow will die, and they die more quickly if the stability is close to the threshold for growth, storage temperature is elevated, antimicrobials are present, and the microorganisms are sublethally injured. Apparently, microorganisms in stable hurdle-technology foods strain every possible repair mechanisms for their homeostasis to overcome the hostile environment, by doing this they completely use up their energy and die, if they become metabolically exhausted. Owing to autosterilization, hurdle-technology foods, which are microbiologically stable, become more safe during storage, especially at ambient temperatures.
Any heating medium can be used with the system: saturated steam uganda's soaring hiv infection rate linked to infidelity cheap starlix 120mg with visa, water antiviral chicken pox purchase starlix paypal, or steam?air mixture hiv infection rates scotland order cheapest starlix. When an overriding air pressure is required hiv infection prophylaxis guidelines discount starlix line, as with glass containers, aluminum cans, plastic containers or flexible pouches, air is mixed with the steam by means of one or more turbo fans, which produce a homogenous mixture of the two gases. Hydrostatic cookers are continuous pressure cookers in which the operating pressure is maintained by water pressure. The temperature of the steam in the steam chamber is controlled by pressure produced by the water legs and can be regulated by moving the level of water in the leg [13,20,22]. This is the down traveling water leg and the con tainer temperature begins to increase. In the lower part of this leg, the water temperature reaches about 100?C and then, near the water seal area next to the steam chamber, the water temperature is about 107?C. In the steam chamber, the can is exposed to a temperature of 115?C?130?C, the steam temperature being set to suit the prod uct undergoing sterilization. Upon leaving the steam chamber, the can again goes through a water seal into water at a temperature of about 107?C where the cooling cycle commences, under pressure. The hydrostatic cooker has no mechan ical valves or locks and thus can be a truly continuous motion retort. The helical pump or hydrostatic helix consists of a rotating coiled tube, in which each turn of the coil is charged at the intake partly with liquid and partly with air. With no pressure at the discharge, the rotating coil may meter liquid at a rate proportional to its rotational speed. With a discharge backpressure, the liq uid in each coil turn forms a series of additive hydrostatic legs. The hydrostatic head developed is a func tion of the number of turns of the helix and the diameter. When the coil is rotated, liquid can enter the coil by gravity flow for one-half turn only, when the first turn (acting as a manometer) is in the upright posi tion. As the coil continues to turn through the next half turn, only air can enter because the manometer is inverted. Thus, equal volumes of liquid and gas are alternately introduced into the helix in a repetitive cycle. The continuous pallet sterilizer is essentially a continuous vertical retort through which cans are transported on pallets. The feed and discharge of the pallets is affected, without pressure loss, through venting locks. Each filled, unprocessed pallet load is conveyed by a rack and pinion arrangement into the lock. After the outside pressure door of the infeed lock is closed, steam is introduced, first at atmospheric pressure to purge air from the pallet and the chamber and thereafter under pressure to equilibrate the lock with the retort. After the venting?equilibration cycle, the pallet is moved forward until it is at the base of the retort. The flexibility of a retort, in terms of the container type, is shared by the continuous pallet retort by virtue of the capacity of a round vessel to withstand much higher pressures than a rectangular hydro static sterilizer tower. Hot water sprays, overpressured with air and steam, with superimposed air pres sure may be used as the sterilizing media. This equipment can be used for continuous processing of pouches, semirigid aluminum containers, institutional half steam table trays, and glass jars. Flame cook ers attempt to increase the temperature differential between the heating source and the food product, and the rate of heat penetration. By increasing the rate of agitation, the probability of burn-on is markedly reduced [14,21,23]. Gas burners at 1100?C provide the heat source to impart the high temperature short-time effect. The cans are placed in very close proximity (just a few millimeters away) to the burners and are kept in constant rotation, with a temperature differential within can and contents not exceeding 1?C. There is no possibility to impart counterpressure, so cans must be fairly rigid to withstand internal steam pressure. The unit depends on continuous axial rotation (about 120 rpm) to move the cans along the burners and obtain the internal turbulence. The first one is a steam preheater, where the cans are heated to a temperature of approximately 100?C. Rolling motion of the cans increases the rate of heat transfer into the whole mass of the food. Next, the cans pass through an intermittently heated burner-holding section for about 4?5 min. Total time elapsed in the cooker is generally less than that required for batch retorting. Cans move through the bed, meeting the same resistance as they would if the medium were a thick liquid receiving some abrasive effect from the particles . The main disadvantages are the possibility of burning and discoloration of the can sur face and damage of the can seals. High-velocity air in excess of 150?C also creates a large temperature differential between the surface and the contents. Cans are axially rolled through to create forced convection within the can contents, thus reducing the possibility of burning or overcooking . The manner in which the sterilizer is designed, installed, and operated is of critical importance. Failure to address these concerns will have direct and significant impact upon the lethality (sterilization value) designed into (and actually obtained in) the process. These data are collected from zero time? (when the heating medium first contacts the containers in the working drum) until a to-be-determined time? at which all temperature-measuring devices meet the readings after sterilizer temperature indicating and recording devices. Most importantly, the time at which the lowest temperature lead meets the true set point? temperature of the control pro gram is critical. This exact time?temperature condition is the traditional process calculation reference point from which process hold times are determined. Temperature distribution is, then, the uniformity of sterilizer temperatures and the stability of sterilizer temperatures at any given time during the entire process cycle, including the come-up, holding, and cooling phases. Temperature distribution in batch, rotary, or hot-water sterilizers is affected by numerous conditions and system features. If the hot-water drop temperature is too high, some semirigid and flexible containers may be dam aged and the temperature gradients between the outside and the inside of the container cage position can become excessive. If the hot-water drop temperature is too low, too much heating in the working drum will then occur, which creates wide temperature gradients. Too short venting time does not allow the storage drum/working drum filling step to occur properly and causes pressure control prob lems in the working retort. Generally, fully loaded large cylindrical containers exhibit shorter come-up time and improved temperature uniformity in all process phases. Spacer mats or divider sheets between layers of containers must be designed for maximum open area to enhance water flow past container surfaces. Design modifications, valve settings, blocked ports, and the number of retorts operating simultaneously in conjunction with other steam demand in the plant will affect test results and should be monitored closely. Rotary retorts to be added to an existing line must also be tested for tem perature distribution . In producing vacuum by this means, the product may be heated prior to filling, or it may be heated both Canning and Sterilization of Foods 599 before and after filling. Heat in this case is employed to expand the product, expand and drive out the occluded and dissolved gases in the product, and reduce the air in the headspace before closure. The length of heating and the final temperature attained before closure has a very important relationship to the ultimate vacuum in the can. Heating may be accomplished by passing the filled can through a steam or hot-water exhaust box. It is common to refer to exhaust box treatment as thermal exhaust? and to preheating before filling as hot fill. The major disadvantages of exhaust boxes are in their bulkiness and their large steam requirements. In mechanical vacuum closure by high-speed vacuum-closing machines, the filled cans while cold or at a rather low temperature are passed into a clincher, which loosely clinches the covers without forming an air-tight seal.
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