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Circumcised Penis Uncircumcised Penis A boy who is circumcised has had An uncircumcised penis still has a the foreskin removed from foreskin hiv yeast infection cheap vermox 100mg on-line. Her hips broaden sinus infection symptoms of hiv buy discount vermox line, her breasts develop and she will begin to hiv infection rates bangkok buy vermox 100 mg cheap have monthly periods (menstruate) anti viral drops buy generic vermox 100mg online. Uterus Fallopian Tubes the muscular organ (also called Thin tubes that extend out on both sides of the the womb) in which a fertilized egg uterus. It Vulva forms a canal that opens into the A womans pubic vagina, which leads to area. Clitoris Labia A sensitive pea-size organ that is Folds of skin that cover right above the urethra. The clitoris the clitoris and the gets a bit bigger and more sensitive openings of the vaginal when its touched or when a girl opening and the urethra. The Anus clitoris plays an important part in the opening from which sexual arousal and orgasm. Size, shape and nipples Each persons breasts will take a different amount of time to become fully developed. When they start and how long they take has nothing to do with the size they will eventually be. Even if it looks different, an inverted nipple can do everything any other nipple can do. You dont have to wear a bra to keep breasts healthy, but some people fnd it more comfortable. Some girls and women wear a bra only when they are doing sports, others wear one all the time except when sleeping. This is part of a regular cycle of changes that happens every month or so called the menstrual cycle. The lining of the uterus becomes thick with blood and fuid to help support a growing baby. The blood/fuid lining of the uterus isnt needed so it leaves the body through the vagina. Most periods usually last between 2 and 7 days, but the length of time is different for everyone. During menstruation, about 4 to 6 tablespoons of blood and fuid leave a girls body through her vagina. When girls feel sexually excited, they may also reach a peak called orgasm (when muscles in their vagina tighten and release). This causes feelings of pleasure and relaxation, but this does not have anything to do with how and when the egg comes out. If you decide to use pads, make sure you change them at least every 4 hours each day and again before you go to bed. Using tampons the right way can prevent a very rare but serious infection called toxic shock syndrome. Each box of tampons or pads has a sheet of instructions (with diagrams) that you can read. You should also talk to a parent/guardian, an older sister or an adult you trust about what to do when you start menstruating. To keep track of your personal menstrual cycle you can count the number of days from start to end on a calendar. The frst day you bleed is day one and the last day before your next period is the end of your cycle. The cycle is usually somewhere between 24 and 36 days in total and can be different for everyone. You might even skip your period for a month or so, and then start getting it again. You can also use a tampon and a pad or panty-liner together if you are worried about leaking. A girl who is menstruating doesnt need to act any differently than she usually does. Gender roles are what people believe about how males and females are supposed to dress and act. Examples of these might be dressing boys in blue and girls in pink, or thinking that only men can work as mechanics and only women can work as nurses. As young people go through puberty, they may feel more pressure to act in ways that are more male or female. There are lots of ways to express yourself including the style and colour of clothes you wear, the activities or sports you like or the way you style your hair. Feel good about who For example, you might be a you are and dont guy who likes pink and loves to let other people tell sew and cook. Whether we are born a boy or a girl, we all have our own feelings inside about being male, female or maybe something else. For most people, the way we feel on the inside (our gender identity) matches how we look outside (our male or female body). Being transgender isnt always an easy thing to deal with and you may fnd that puberty is a very diffcult time. There are lots of transgender people in society and people who can help you make sense of things. During puberty, your brain is in one of the most active stages of growth and change. These changes affect your thoughts and feelings but also make this a time when learning and creativity is better than ever! Your body needs healthy food and plenty of water every day to keep it running smoothly. Check out Canadas Food Guide to learn about the kinds of food you should choose and how much you should eat. Getting regular exercise should keep you at a healthy weight and can help you feel good! When you are active, the ups and downs of puberty can seem a lot easier to handle. Smoking, using alcohol and other drugs are behaviours that can affect your health in a negative way. Some kids feel pressure from friends (peer pressure) to use substances and do stuff they are not comfortable with. Sexual Feelings Male and female bodies respond to sexual thoughts, feelings and touches this is called arousal or feeling sexually excited. When you have these feelings, you might feel changes in your body like being suddenly hot (fushed) and maybe even a nervous, tingly feeling. Masturbation should be done in a private place where there wont be any interruptions. It takes a sperm cell and an egg cell to join together to make an embryo which can be the beginning of a baby. When a man and woman have sex (sexual intercourse), the penis fts into the vagina. Sperm cells leave the mans penis, travel through the vagina into the uterus and into the fallopian tubes. This is where the two cells may meet and join into one tiny cell (embryo) that is ready to move to the uterus to grow. No one including relatives, friends, people in charge of you or strangers has the right to touch your body against your wishes. But its not okay to touch or kiss someone unless they agree to it (provide consent). When an adult touches a child in a sexual way or makes a child touch them this is called sexual abuse. Sometimes people who have been sexually assaulted or harassed feel embarrassed, ashamed or even guilty about what has happened. These feelings are common, but when someone hurts you in this way, it is not your fault! Sometimes a person who has hurt you is someone close to you or someone with power or authority over you. This may feel very confusing and you might fnd it very hard to tell anyone, but its important that you do. Many people who have been sexually assaulted or harassed say that keeping it a secret only made them feel worse. There are other kinds of abuse that can happen to kids like physical abuse, emotional abuse or neglect.

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It is important to hiv infection rates 2015 100 mg vermox with mastercard tell your physiotherapist if you feel you have not made a full recovery antiviral treatment vermox 100mg mastercard, and discuss the options for further treatment hiv infection rates nz cheap 100mg vermox visa. This is not usually the case when good care is taken to antiviral y antibiotico juntos cheap 100 mg vermox visa protect the pelvic joints from further strain or trauma. You should be able to choose your place of birth as you wish, including birthing centre or home birth options. Before labour: Think about and practice moving between positions that are comfortable for you Record them in your birth plan and discuss with your birthing partner and/or midwife Labour and birth in water may be appropriate and comfortable for you Discuss coping strategies with your physiotherapist During labour: use gravity to help the baby to move downwards by staying as upright as possible: kneeling on all-fours standing these positions can help labour to progress and avoid further strain on your pelvis. You may f nd that, following physiotherapy treatment, you are able to open your legs further. However, if you still have some restriction while pregnant and/or after labour has started, your physiotherapist, midwife or birthing partner should measure how far apart your knees can separate without pain (your pain-free range) when lying on your back, or sitting on the edge of a chair with your feet apart. You should take care to keep your legs within your pain-free range of movement as much as possible during labour and birth to protect your joints, particularly if you have an epidural or spinal block. However, in a minority of births it may be necessary to move your legs wider apart in order to deliver your baby safely. Assisted deliveries (forceps and ventouse) Where you need forceps, ventouse delivery or stitching in the lithotomy position. After you have had your baby If you have pain or diff culty moving after the birth of your baby, do tell your midwife. Feeding and caring for baby Feeding: When possible, sit in a f rm but comfortable chair to feed your baby. Emotional well-being It is important that your partner, family, friends and hospital staff give you as much support as possible while you are in hospital and when you get home. Physiotherapy referral You can: ask to resume physiotherapy as soon as you feel able to attend have a physiotherapy reassessment of your spine and pelvis, and start treatment as needed d. Sexual intercourse You may be able to avoid discomfort during sexual intercourse by considering alternative positions or other ways to be sexually intimate. For some, this may get better after a couple of months, but for others, it continues. Exercise and sport keep doing your pelvic foor muscle exercises every day keep up the exercises given to you in hospital continue the gentle abdominal/tummy (and hip) exercises given to you by your physiotherapist when you were pregnant after your baby is born, continue to be careful when exercising until you are symptom-free avoid high-impact activity, such as aerobics, for a few months avoid any activity that brings back the pain 10. If it is, then the physiotherapist can check your pelvic joints and make sure you are as ft as possible for another pregnancy. There is no particular advantage in leaving a long gap between babies, although some abdominal muscles may not have recovered fully 12 months after the birth of your baby. Further investigations Further investigations should be considered if your symptoms do not improve once the baby is born and after physiotherapy treatment. Usually, with good advice and education, these symptoms can be kept to a minimum and managed well. However, if symptoms persist, or you feel like they are affecting your daily activities, then do seek advice and referral to a womens health physiotherapist a. This, accompanied by the muscular and hormonal changes that occurred during pregnancy, can sometimes lead to upper and lower backache during the f rst few postnatal months. Usually, these symptoms are uncomplicated, and can be reduced or even eliminated with good postural awareness. When sitting and feeding your baby, prepare your seating arrangements whenever possible. Position your bottom far back in the chair, and place a small cushion or rolled up towel into the small of your back. It can also help if baby is supported on a pillow on your knee, so that you are able to keep your shoulders back while feeding baby. When changing your baby, the safe use of a changing table can be helpful to avoid low back pain. Curving the spine into fexion unduly loads the spine and back muscles, which can quickly cause backache. When leaning forwards over baby, try to think about hinging from your hip joints and gently drawing your tummy button towards your spine. This posture should also be adopted when lifting baby out of a cot, and as much as possible, when bathing baby. Other activities that may contribute to postnatal backache are: pram handles being too low so that you have to be in a bent position to walk front baby carriers being positioned too low and putting a strain on the shoulders always carrying baby on the same side If your backache is persistent and does not settle by correcting your posture, you should speak to your health visitor or midwife, and be referred to a physiotherapist. The physiotherapist will assess your back pain, advise you regarding helpful exercises and treat your symptoms if necessary. Diastasis rectus abdominis the rectus abdominis (6-pack muscle) runs down the front of the abdomen. It has two muscle bellies that sit close together, attached to a f brous band (the linea alba). During pregnancy, the linea alba becomes thinner, stretches and the muscle bellies move apart to accommodate the growing bump. It is very common in pregnancy, (>60% in the 3rd trimester) and can continue postnatally. It is associated with repeated heavy lifting (including childcare), being older, and is much more common in women who do not exercise before, or during, pregnancy. Symptoms A gap of around 2 f nger-widths at the belly button is considered to be normal. The muscles need to be strong enough to help control movement around the pelvis and back to contribute to posture and breathing, and provide abdominal organ support. For women with uncomplicated pregnancies, 150 minutes per week of moderate exercise is recommended. Your physiotherapist will also advise you on specif c core and abdominal exercises to strengthen your pelvic foor, and appropriate control of the core muscles. The focus postnatally should also be on activation of the pelvic foor and core muscles. Exercises such as sit-ups, planks and high-impact exercises need to be avoided initially. Also avoid any activities that increase abdominal pressure, or cause doming of the abdominals, such as straining with constipation and repeated heavy lifting. For some women, compression such as a tubigrip or belly band can help in the early stages, but seek the advice of a physiotherapist regarding this. Carpal tunnel syndrome the carpal tunnel is an inelastic structure located at the level of the wrist. Many tendons which move the thumb and fngers pass through this carpal tunnel on their way to the hand. A nerve called the median nerve also sits in this tunnel with the tendons, so there is very little room. The nerve is responsible for giving you feeling in the thumb and fngers, and also makes the tendons work properly. Hormone changes during pregnancy can cause swelling in many parts of your body including the wrist and carpal tunnel. You may feel one or more of the following symptoms: pain, pins and needles, numbness or burning in the thumb, index middle or ring fngers tingling or numbness of your entire hand weakness in the hand and forearm pain that shoots from your hands up the arm as far as the shoulder your symptoms are worse at night or frst thing in the morning you may drop objects you may have trouble performing dextrous tasks such as writing because of reduced grip hands are swollen, hot and sweaty Self-management of carpal tunnel syndrome 1. Elevate your arms with pillows or cushions when lying or sitting down this can help to reduce swelling in the tunnel. Apply ice cubes wrapped in a wet tea towel to the front of your wrist for 10-15 minutes, 3-4 times each day. Speak to your pharmacist about medication that may help your pain but is safe to take throughout pregnancy. Always ensure the metal bar is fat and follow your physiotherapists instructions for when and for how long you should use it. Try to keep wrists in a neutral position when undertaking activities of daily living such as writing, eating and washing. Avoid any heavy lifting as this will cause the tendons to swell and further reduce space within the carpal tunnel. Other symptoms include: aching, heavy and uncomfortable legs swelling in the feet and/or ankles burning or throbbing in your legs muscle cramp in your legs, particularly at night dry, itchy and thin skin over the affected vein How do they occur

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Before ending the massage antiviral brand generic 100 mg vermox with amex, apply Biofreeze Gel to acute hiv infection timeline buy vermox 100mg free shipping any remaining tender areas of the golfers anterior body hiv/aids infection rates (recent statistics) order vermox 100 mg without prescription. Suggested areas of tenderness for golfers would be wrist anti viral entry inhibitors 100mg vermox fast delivery, shoulder, medial elbow, knee and ankle. Small amounts of Biofreeze should be applied only to specifc areas of tenderness to avoid overwhelming the golfer with cold sensation. Golf Step 47 (a) movements require repetitive whipping rotary movements of the human body resulting in sore elbows, shoulders, low back, knees and ankle joints. A well conditioned golfer is usually less likely to become extremely sore while playing. Common areas of soreness in golfers: Golfers elbow For the right-handed golfer: Pain at the right medial epicondyle caused by keeping elbow extended during follow through. The Hips During the golf swing, the hips rotate causing strain to the muscles below the iliac crest. Step 47 (b) the knees the knees are one of the frst body parts to rotate during the golf swing, which causes stress to the anterior parts of the knee. The Rotator Cuf the rotator cuf muscles are very active in the swing, and become vulnerable to over use and micro trauma. Your client will have a unique experience when you are able to bring in hydrotherapy principles with the use of hot and cold stones combined with deep tissue massage and Prossage Heat. They will relax quickly with the heat, which will initiate the healing process sooner. Follow with the application of the cold stones, which will assist in pumping toxins out of the tissue and will bring a sense of balance and well being into the treatment. Contraindications: Blood pressure medications (consult physician) Blood thinners (consult physician) Products used in treatment: Prossage Oil Step 4 Biofreeze Gel Both hot and cold stones treatment Protocol Overview Strokes with the stones are an extension of your hand. Look at the back in quadrants: lower left, lower right, upper left, and upper right. With the smaller stones, work the upper left, then upper right quadrants of the back. Next we will introduce the cold stone by applying a minimal amount of Biofreeze to the back. Step 5 (b) Performance Health 43 Massage Therapy Treatments Specialty Treatment Deep Tissue Back Stone Treatment (Continued) 9. Apply the cool stones to the upper back with pressure and allow the body to adjust to the temperature. Remember, when working the back, start with hot stones in the lower quadrants frst, and then work the upper back. With cold stones, start in the upper quadrants frst, and then work the lower back. But if you injure or lose a clients trust, the damage is done and their trust may be difcult to regain. If you work too deeply or with too much heat, the client will not have confdence, which is essential for the healing process to start. Whenever you use heat in a treatment for new clients you want it to be introduced gradually; heat receptors will adjust to take more heat as the treatment progresses. You cannot take back what is done, so you do not want our client to react and put up their guard. Working with a hot stone, the pressure and pace of the stone will dictate the temperature and your client will be able to adjust. If you are looking for a toning efect to the muscle, a few drops of Prossage could be appropriate with a cold stone. If you are looking for a calming efect, a cold stone would be suggested or the use of Biofreeze Gel. You will fnd that your clients will accept the cool stones better if they are applied with frm pressure during an exhale. If you are working from a solid foundation, the stone becomes an extension of your hand. Then, with a good understanding on how temperature afects the body, be it hot or cold, it has the ability to enhance almost any treatment. When you are working with temperature, please work within your abilities and respect the tolerance of your clients. To assure Prossage Heat a long and successful career massage therapists should incorporate self-care techniques into their daily routine. Pre-treatment self-Care tips: Stretch and strength train using Thera-Band Elastic Resistance Bands to keep your body healthy. Apply massage techniques to wrist and forearm Try to utilize your body weight and gravity to increase pressure when applying massage techniques. Post treatment self-Care tips: Apply self massage techniques to wrist and forearm using Prossage and Biofreeze products. Although massage therapy can ease the pain and relax tight muscles, it cannot stop spasm from returning. Remember to start stretching today and increase the stretch as you feel stronger and more comfortable with each stretch. Warm Up All stretching should start with a brief warm-up period to help increase blood fow in the muscles. Getting in position Neck stretching can easily be performed standing or in a seated position and start by looking forward. Neck rotations Look forward and with a slow, steady movement, rotate your head to the right side and hold for two to three seconds. Neck side extensions Looking forward, let your head lower slowly over to the right side as far as you feel comfortable. It can be worked into treatment or you can instruct your client to do this themselves after a session or at home. This treatment uses hand and wrist stretches, and Biofreeze Maximum Strength Wipes. With your palm up, reach under and gently put pressure on the thumb to open up the hand. Hold right hand out (like you are about to shake someones hand) and grasp right hand with left hand, palmer surface to palmer surface and rotate downward (ulna deviate). Place your left hand on top of right and stretch the extensors by pushing right hand down. Bring right forearm in front of you, with left hand start at the wrist and compress the right forearm up to the elbow. Lace fngers together and extend hands out in front for a nice stretch to complement above protocol. Biofreeze Pain Reliever is the most frequently products used in the massage treatments in your practice. E people manage their discomfort by ofering aFor over 20 years, our products have been helping variety of benefts that assist in therapy, pain relief, exercise/training and overall comfort. Using natural menthol as the active ingredient, Biofreeze penetrates quickly, preventing orrelieving pain through cold therapy. Choose products that are not easily accessible to your clients and carry a professional recommendation. Choose products that you use in your practice or are a direct extension of your work. Purchase products from a manufacturer that will support you on marketing and customer service issues. Muscle spasmsstrained Muscle Pain arthritis Painsports injury Pain neck, Hip and Leg PainPainful Joints 9. Biofreeze Pain reliever Can extend Your Level of Care the Support to Grow Together Clients who experience Biofreeze Pain Reliever in your ofce will welcome the opportunity Event sponsorship to purchase the products for use at home or on-the-go. Biofreeze Pain Reliever can encourage client loyalty, invite referrals, and heighten your standing as a practitioner with leading-edge care. Our Build Your Practice program includes: Customized samples Our sample cards (available in English and Spanish) come with one free 5mL sample of Biofreeze Pain Relieving Gel attached.

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If pain intensity women initially randomised side effects of antiviral meds buy vermox 100 mg cheap, with respect to hiv infection odds buy vermox amex at least one of the was reported rather than pain relief we also considered this and primary outcomes of this review hiv infection and hiv disease order discount vermox online. Secondary outcomes We included trials where the diagnosis of dysmenorrhoea was not Requirement for additional medication formally assessed with a physical or gynaecological examination Interference with daily activities provided no clinical indications of pelvic pathology were reported hiv infection prevalence united states discount 100mg vermox. There abstracts) to cross-link citations of relevant articles; was no restriction by language or publication status. We attempted to contact study Other electronic sources of trials included: investigators as required, to clarify study eligibility (for example, trial registers for ongoing and registered trials: with respect to randomisation). Nonsteroidal anti-in ammatory drugs for dysmenorrhoea (Review) 7 Copyright 2015 the Cochrane Collaboration. Nonsteroidal anti-in ammatory drugs for dysmenorrhoea (Review) 8 Copyright 2015 the Cochrane Collaboration. For each study, we extracted data on study design, participants, interventions and outcome measures: these are presented in the Characteristics of included studies table. We also extracted data on study ndings: these are presented in the Results and the Data and analyses sec tions. Nonsteroidal anti-in ammatory drugs for dysmenorrhoea (Review) 9 Copyright 2015 the Cochrane Collaboration. Data extraction form Nonsteroidal anti-in ammatory drugs for dysmenorrhoea (Review) 10 Copyright 2015 the Cochrane Collaboration. For the rst version of this review, we made attempts to contact the authors of 29 trials published since 1985 in order to clarify We deemed the risk of bias low if one of these methods was de aspects of methodology or obtain missing data. We deemed the risk of bias unclear if the study was de from eight authors or co-authors of these trials. We did not make scribed as randomised but the method used for allocation conceal attempts to contact authors of studies published before 1985 or ment was not described. Blinding Where studies had multiple publications, we used the main trial Blinding refers to whether participants and study personnel knew report as the reference and derived additional details from sec which women were receiving active treatment and which were ondary papers. We deemed the risk of bias unclear if the study was de concealment; adequacy of blinding of women, providers and out scribed as blinded but no further details were reported. As noted come assessors; completenessof outcome data; risk of selective out above, we excluded studies that were clearly not blinded. Attrition bias We considered outcome data as complete if either of the following Sequence generation applied: We considered the following methods of random sequence gener all women randomised were analysed; ation adequate: data were imputed for those missing. We deemed the risk of bias unclear if the study was de scribed as randomised but the sequence generation method was not described. Selective reporting We assessed a study as being free of the risk of selective outcome reporting if both the following applied: Allocation concealment the published report included all expected outcomes; We considered the following methods of allocation concealment outcomes were reported systematically for all comparison adequate: groups, based on prospectively collected data. Nonsteroidal anti-in ammatory drugs for dysmenorrhoea (Review) 11 Copyright 2015 the Cochrane Collaboration. Potential bias related to study funding We assessed a study as being at unclear risk of bias related to study funding if it was commercially sponsored or the source of funding was not reported We resolved disagreements by consensus. The results of the assess ment of risk of bias are presented in the Characteristics of included studies and in a summary table (Figure 3). We incorporated these results into the interpretation of review ndings by means of sen sitivity analyses. Where studies reported data only per menstrual cycle we brie y Measures of treatment effect summarised results in an additional table. Where the placebo group contained an uneven (RevMan 2014), where they were displayed as odds ratios and number of women, we entered the placebo group for both com 95% con dence intervals. Cross-over trials For the 2009 update of this review (and subsequent updates) we made an a priori decision to include data from all phases of cross Unit of analysis issues over trials, wherever possible. The strength of a cross-over design is that variation in repeated responses between women is usually less than that between different women and hence the trials can Denominator give more precise results. To exploit this correlation, cross-over Nonsteroidal anti-in ammatory drugs for dysmenorrhoea (Review) 12 Copyright 2015 the Cochrane Collaboration. Methods are now available for meta-analysing cross In view of the dif culty in detecting and correcting for publica over trials and for combining the summary effect measures of par tion bias and other reporting biases, we aimed to minimise their allel and cross-over trials. However, to date the reporting of cross potential impact by ensuring a comprehensive search for eligible over trials has been very variable and the data required to include studies and by being alert for duplication of data. We used a funnel a paired analysis in a meta-analysis are frequently unreported so plot to assess the possibility of small study effects (a tendency for that there is insuf cient information to apply any one synthesis estimates of the intervention effect to be more bene cial in smaller method consistently (Elbourne 2002). We cautiously consid In this review, where cross-over trials were analysed using methods ered visible asymmetry in the funnel plot as a possible indication suitable for paired data and reported an overall measure of effect of publication bias. Where cross-over trials reported dichotomous data or continuous Data synthesis data analysed using non-paired methods, we extracted these data We synthesised (combined) the data from primary studies if they as if they derived from parallel trials. Nevertheless, this in cross-over and parallel data using the inverse variance method. We explored the effect of this choice pooled odds ratios for dichotomous data, with 95% con dence of analysis in sensitivity analyses. An increase in the odds of a particular outcome, which may be bene cial (for example, pain relief) or detrimen Dealing with missing data tal (for example, an adverse effect), is displayed graphically in the We only included analyses reported in the primary studies that meta-analyses to the right of the centre-line and a decrease in the included at least 80% of women in the review. Where analysed the available data, based on the numerator and denom trial results were presented only as graphs, we described the nd inator reported in study results or calculable from reported per ings in the text. We explored the effect of excluding studies with more We translated the key results into assumed and comparative risks than 10% of data missing in sensitivity analyses. We estimated control group risks for the main comparison from median values in the placebo group in 31 studies of pain relief and 19 of adverse effects in a previous version of this review, and we estimated the corresponding inter Assessment of heterogeneity vention group risk using the formula suggested in the Cochrane We considered whether the clinical and methodological charac Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions (Higgins 2011; teristics of the included studies were suf ciently similar for meta Section 11. Sensitivity analysis We planned sensitivity analyses for the primary review outcomes to determine whether the results were robust to decisions made Included studies during the review process. They randomised a total of 5820 women, 2372 cross-over data were analysed as if they derived from parallel in parallel studies and 3448 in cross-over studies. Sample size in studies); the parallel trials ranged from 17 to 410; seven randomised over studies that contributed twice to a pooled analysis: this 100 women. Sample size in the cross-over trials ranged from 11 occurred occasionally where a study contributed more than one to 198. The majority were pub lished inEnglish, although ve were inSpanish, four inPortuguese Overall quality of the body of evidence: Summary of and one each in French, Italian and Norwegian. Trials were trans ndings table lated as required by members of the Cochrane Collaboration. We prepared a Summary of ndings table using the Guideline Development Tool software. All but three of the trials stated clearly idence quality (high, moderate or low) into the reporting of results either that they included only women with primary dysmenor for each primary outcome. The other three studies had less speci c inclusion cri teria that did not de ne dysmenorrhoea (Akerlund 1989; Pauls 1978), or included both primary and secondary dysmenorrhoea R E S U L T S but reported results separately (Sahin 2003). The diagnosis of pri mary dysmenorrhoea was con rmed by a physical or gynaecolog ical examination in 40 of the included studies. We retrieved 18 ar gesics or other medications that could interfere with the proposed ticles for further assessment regarding their eligibility, 10 from comparisons. Nonsteroidal anti-in ammatory drugs for dysmenorrhoea (Review) 14 Copyright 2015 the Cochrane Collaboration. Several of the included studies reported data tionnaire, record card or diary in which the women noted any on comparison arms receiving interventions not relevant to this re symptoms daily during their menstrual period. For details of the drug regimes used See Characteristics of excluded studies for more information. Risk of bias in included studies Outcomes the quality of the included studies is summarised in Figure 4. Nonsteroidal anti-in ammatory drugs for dysmenorrhoea (Review) 15 Copyright 2015 the Cochrane Collaboration. Nonsteroidal anti-in ammatory drugs for dysmenorrhoea (Review) 16 Copyright 2015 the Cochrane Collaboration. Allocation Potential bias related to study funding Allstudiesstatedthattheywererandomised,butonly23%(18/80) Seven studies (7/80; 9%) reported a non-commercial source of described in detail their method of generating a random allocation funding and we rated them as at low risk of potential bias related sequence. We rated the other studies as at unclear risk rated all the other studies as at unclear risk. Glossary Please refer to the Cochrane glossary for explanation of unfamiliar Blinding terms: community.