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They also provide a very real and present pleasure in enlarging the scope of every music lovers experience antimicrobial use and resistance in animals cheap ceftin 250mg free shipping. The reference to virus scan for mac buy ceftin 500 mg amex Welte-Mignon may antibiotics yellow stool order 250mg ceftin with visa, of course virus map buy ceftin 250 mg otc, be extended to the other makes of reproducing pianos and rolls. The most fruitful and noteworthy period, at least in the number and prestige of the classical artists, came in the first year, 1905, and in the first four months of 1906 before Edwin [Welte] left for the States. They envisioned a wonderful thing: a self-contained reproducing piano which would record and then play again all the compositions of the great masters; an instrument which could record and reproduce the temperament and characteristics of the worlds foremost pianists. Truly this was an admirable idea, but it was very hard to see how this would be carried out in actual practice. If such a device could be made it would mean that the playing of artists something which would normally vanish in the air would be preserved so as to be available to the most distant people in future centuries. The inventors achieved a wonderful cultural success through the creation of the incomparable Mignon instrument truly a work of magic which reproduced the musical geniuses for all generations to enjoy. Now arose another problem which could only be solved in a very delicate way: how would the most prominent musicians and musical masters receive the Welte-Mignon Wouldnt the prominent composers and the famous pianists be distrustful of a competitor Would they look with interest on the Mignon, or would they turn away from it so that it would be unsuccessful and soon forgotten He was the right one to interest the artists in the new invention and present the Mignon from its most favorable viewpoint. They all heard and liked the Mignon and they became eager to give a part of their own performance to this instrument. In the recording salon of Popper & Company in Leipzig many of the foremost pianists of the world met. Their recommendations, thoughts and emotions about the Mignon were all inscribed in a book which stands as a document of honor to the inventors. The pianist could, however, provide his or her own pedalling and use devices to vary the tempo and dynamics. The first player piano, called a pianola was put out in the late 1890s by the same Aeolian company which later put out the Duo-Art reproducing piano and rolls. The player piano could also be played normally, was more convenient and soon superseded the push-up device. Each of the various player piano brands became popularly known as a pianola much as the vacuum cleaner came to be called a hoover. We are here only concerned with the player pianos aristocratic cousin the reproducing piano as it was the only one which could reproduce the recording artists dynamics and pedalling. The main reproducing piano and reproducing roll companies were Welte, Triphonola (Hupfeld), Duo-Art (Aeolian) and Ampico. Reproducing pianos and their rolls were manufactured and issued from 1905 to about 1930 but production thereafter virually ceased. This was occasioned by the Great Depression and the increasing popularity of cheaper and more convenient music making. This occurred through the increasing popularity of radio and the introduction of electrically recorded discs which by 1930 had superseded the old acoustic discs. Reproducing piano recordings were very popular in their day but they were then largely forgotten, ignored or treated as a passing curiosity. Besides being of unique value as evidence of past performing practice, and thus fascinating historically, they are also fascinating musically in their own right. Denis Condon of Newtown, Sydney, is a world authority on reproducing pianos and rolls. His collection has over eight thousand reproducing piano rolls, about four thousand being classical and the remainder being dance music. It is not the largest collection in the world but is the most important because of the historical importance of the classical component. He has laboured unremittingly in this field for well over fifty years and he was the first to take any interest in, or make any attempt to preserve, this valuable cultural heritage. He has done this by acquiring reproducing pianos, piano rolls, books and catalogues, and equally importantly, by rebuilding, restoring and maintaining the pianos, skills he has had to learn for himself. He has always generously shared his knowledge and enthusiasm with others and has for many years promoted the enjoyment of reproducing piano music through regular bi-monthly evening performances at his studio in Newtown, Sydney. In 1853 his compositional and pianistic talent had so impressed Hans von Bulow that Bulow personally recommended him to Liszt. Reubke arrived at Weimar in 1856 and the twenty-one year old rapidly became a favourite among the Liszt pupils at the Altenburg. There he wrote and performed his piano sonata in B flat minor which is influenced by the Liszt Sonata and is dedicated to Liszt. Reubkes piano sonata is in one movement with a central Andante maestoso and a scherzo (allegro agitato) recapitulation. Reubke also wrote and performed his organ sonata which is an established part of the organ repertoire. Truly no one could feel more deeply the loss which Art has suffered in your Julius, than the one who has followed with admiring sympathy his noble, constant, and successful strivings in these latter years, and who will ever remain true to the memory of his friendship the one who signs himself with great esteem Yours most truly F. Liszt American pianist and Liszt pupil, William Dayas (1863-1903), performed Reubkes Sonata at a Weimar masterclass in 1885 in the presence of Liszt who was visibly moved. Risler studied with Liszt pupils Stavenhagen and dAlbert but he never recorded the Liszt Sonata. Not only the individual shape of the hand counts, but even the whole corporal shape. That is why there is no optimum position for sitting at the piano, in spite of what pedagogues think. Setting the extraordinary technical difficulty of the music of Domenico Scarlatti and Bach against the keyboard music of the later part of the century, one might think that keyboard technique had deteriorated. The unthinking, unplanned performance and this is an incontrovertible fact of modern concert life is generally far less spontaneous, much more the prisoner of habit, than one that questions the traditional point of view, in which the performer questions his own instincts. Chapter 2 Listen to the Sound of the Piano Although string and wind players are used to listening to themselves, pianists forget to do so and have to be reminded. The tone colour of the extreme bass and the tone colour of the extreme treble of the piano are very different. Chapter 4 Conservatories and Contests For amateur or professional, the life of a pianist is more rewarding the larger the repertory. Sight-reading comes more easily to some pianists than to others but it is an art that is developed almost entirely by practising it. Exploring repertoire: for a pianist who begins to play at the age of four, not to have done all this by the age of twenty is to create a handicap that will last for the rest of life. The greatest teacher does not impose an interpretation but tries to find the way the pupil wishes to play and to improve the effectiveness of the interpretation. Most tolerant of all are composers who are happy to come upon a new form of interpretation of a familiar piece. Chapter 5 Concerts Playing in public not only isolates the pianist, it isolates and objectifies the work of music, and turns the performance into an object as well. The less one is aware of the audience the greater the chance of a deep immersion in the music that results in a more satisfactory performance. What makes for success is the intensity of listening, the heightened attention awakened to the public. Chapter 6 Recording It is sometimes mistakenly thought that the more echo or resonance in a hall, the less pedal one should use, but in a hall with a warm, rich acoustic, the effect of the pedal adds to the resonance and gives greater fullness. Overpedalling, where there is little resonance or echo and therefore too much clarity, is disturbing. A unity of interpretation requires a large-scale view of the tempo, even when there is a great deal of rubato, or changes of speed, and requires a control of tone color to hold the piece together. Chapter 7 Style and Manners In the 1940s and 1950s the academic way of playing Bach, by those who persevered with him on the piano in the teeth of the propaganda for the harpsichord, was one of sober restraint. In playing a fugue it was always thought to be important to bring out every appearance of the theme, with the other voices held to a subsidiary dynamic level. In this way a fugue was realized as a series of mezzo forte entries of the theme, extracted like plums from the texture which formed a background cake of neutral flavor. The principal interest in Bachs fugues lies not in the main theme but in the way it combines with the interesting motifs of the other voices, themselves often derived from the theme itself. So far as Haydn and Mozart are concerned, my own taste goes to a performance that preserves the detached articulation intended. Historical purity is not the most important goal of a performance, particularly when we consider that we can never be sure we are getting it right.

The equivalent to antibiotics for dogs for kennel cough buy discount ceftin 500mg line the present-day sustaining pedal in late eighteenth century pianos consisted of levers which were pressed upwards by the players knees virus zero portable air sterilizer reviews generic ceftin 250 mg fast delivery. The sustaining pedal infection movie buy 250mg ceftin free shipping, also called the damper pedal or antibiotic resistance using darwin's theory purchase discount ceftin online, incorrectly, the loud pedal, is usually simply called the pedal since it is the one most frequently used. Normally the damper is raised off the strings whenever the key for that note is pressed. Use of the pedal assists the pianist to play legato, that is, to play notes in a smooth, connected manner, and enables the pianist to sustain notes that he or she cannot hold with the fingers. Pedalling is one of the techniques a pianist must master since piano music from Chopin on benefits from, and indeed requires, extensive use of the pedal. In contrast, the pedal was used sparingly, if at all, in the early compositions of the classical period. This softens the note and modifies its tone quality but does not change the touch or feel of the action. The soft pedal was invented by Cristofori and thus it appeared on the very earliest pianos. In modern pianos there are three strings per note, except for lower notes which have two and the very lowest which have only one. It operates a mechanism that moves the resting position of the hammers closer to the strings. It keeps raised any damper that was already raised at the moment the pedal was pressed. This makes it possible to sustain individual note(s) while the players hands are free to play other notes. Some upright pianos have a celeste pedal which can be locked into place by pressing it and pushing it to one side. This drops a strip of felt between the hammers and the strings so that the notes are greatly muted. Melody delaying: playing the right hand melody slightly after the left hand accompaniment;! Melody anticipation: playing the right hand melody slightly before the left hand accompaniment;! Arpeggiata: arpeggiation, rolling, breaking, spreading of chords where not so marked by the composer, for reasons other than the limitations of an insufficiently large hand;! There is a tendency nowadays to regard these devices which were not specifically marked in the scores, as mannerisms, bad taste, bad habits, or just plain faulty technique. The first three largely disappeared in the 1930s although in recent years some pianists have given a limited revival to melody delaying and arpeggiata. A project which analysed the use of the first three devices in piano roll recordings of Chopins Nocturne in F sharp major opus 15 no. Bulow seems to have been disapproving of melody delaying, melody anticipation and arpeggiata, or any one or more of these, while acknowledging their occasional appropriateness. Liszt himself was fond of arpeggiated chords as he marks them often in his piano music. Liszt pupil Eugen dAlbert discussed Liszts E flat piano concerto with the composer and performed it as soloist in the composers presence in Weimar. DAlberts annotations to his edition of the concerto show that Liszt requested arpeggiata, at least sometimes, in his own music even where not marked. Liszt marks numerous chordal arpeggiations in his piano realisation of Wagners Liebestod even in many places where the average pianist would have a wide enough stretch to strike the chords because they do not exceed the octave. Claudio Arrau, who was Liszt pupil Martin Krauses most celebrated pupil, once told an interviewer: There is a Liszt way of playing. The foremost ingredient is a free way of playing, with the ability to encompass great muscular endurance, large stretches and the use of the whole arm from the shoulder. Perfect bel canto playing is also required in melodic passages, and great chordal command. It was never played with all the notes the same, but rolled either 283 upwards or downwards, fast or slow, in crescendo or decrescendo, and countless other ways. Trills too were to be played as a means of expression, so that one played slow trills, fast trills, loud trills, soft trills, everything to bring out what a particular trill was meant to convey. But perhaps the greatest thing I absorbed from Krause as part of the Liszt mystique or way was an utter devotion to the work to be played to be totally and profoundly in the service of the music before you. Normally at his masterclasses Liszt could be severe towards any pianist who performed Chopin with any alteration to the score. Bars 94-95 and 96-97 are in apposition, but to make the contrast more effective Liszt used to play the latter bars pianissimo and with more rubato than in the previous two bars, slightly accentuating the top note of the accompaniment in the left hand, and at the same time playing the chords in the right hand arpeggiata [they are not marked arpeggiata by Chopin], upwards for the second and fourth chords, downwards for the third chord in bar 96 and the first and third chords in bar 97. The result is delicately expressive and adds a richness to the intense tranquillity which pervades the end of this Nocturne. Stavenhagen used to add that Chopin himself approved of Liszts rendering of this passage, and that though Liszt was sometimes accused of tampering with Chopins music it was only an occasional effect such as this which he had known him to introduce, and in each case one which greatly enhanced the context. To come now to technical matters, in the second bar of the third Ballade a quite incongruous effect is produced by playing the last chord of the bar arpeggata, as usually marked [presumably in some editions of the day but not by Chopin], in contrast to the enhanced effect obtained by playing the second chord arpeggiata [not so marked by Chopin]. The same progression occurs at bar 38, and again at bar 46, with a repetition in alt at bars 46-47. Liszt used to play the first progression of bar 46 as marked, non arpeggiata, but the repetition in alt was played by him as a delicate echo of the preceding progression with both chords arpeggiata [the second chord is not marked arpeggiata by Chopin]. Eugen dAlbert often practised arpeggiata where not marked as may be heard in many of his reproducing piano recordings including the Liszt Sonata and Beethovens Waldstein Sonata, especially in the second subject of the first movement. The high-water mark is perhaps reached by Ernest Schelling in his reproducing piano recording of the Liszt Sonata. Paderewski, with whom Schelling studied for three years, was also an inveterate practitioner of arpeggiata as his discs and rolls show. Franz Liszt (1811-1886) and Johannes Brahms (1833-1897) were contemporaries for fifty-three years. It follows that how Brahms played may be of some assistance in understanding how Liszt played his own compositions, and those of other composers. This was what the critic of the Karlsruher Zeitung said about Brahmss performance of his D minor piano concerto on 3 November 1865. Florence May reports that when Brahms gave her piano lessons in 1871 he particularly disliked chords to be spread unless marked so by the composer for the sake of a special effect. That Brahms did not practise what he preached is also revealed by Moriz Rosenthals report that when Brahms played in the 1880s he rolled most of his chords. The association of speeding up with getting louder seems to have been common in Brahmss day. Musgrave and Sherman have considered the performance markings Brahms pencilled into the autograph score of his piano concerto in B flat major. They report that those in the finale often indicate accelerations not marked in the published score and they take place during crescendos that are marked. By examining them Will Crutchfield has shown that musicians in Brahmss circle often accelerated during crescendo passages. Robert Philip has shown that speeding up at points of high tension was much more frequent before the mid-twentieth century than it has since become. On the cylinder recording of part of the first Hungarian Dance that Brahms made in 1889, one hears, as Will Crutchfield has pointed out, the left hand slightly before the right on just about all the accented first beats where the texture is melody/accompaniment [but] never on big accented chords. He lived for nine years after Edisons invention but, although rumours abound, no cylinder of Liszts playing has ever come to light. It seems he was never approached by Edisons European emissaries, although Brahms, Anton Rubinstein and Tchaikovsky were. He wrote: Five minutes later it was replayed to me so clearly and faithfully that one cried out in astonishment. Wangemann had gone to Boston specifically to record Bulows recitals, and other pieces were probably also recorded. Slight breaks, short silences or longer pauses help to shape musical phrases and ideas, to communicate the composers intentions and to assist the listener in his [or her] understanding and enjoyment. These silences may sometimes be obvious; on other occasions a performer may place them so unobtrusively and deliberately that the listener may hardly be aware of them, though their effect may unconsciously shape his appreciation and response.

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A student showing frustration or shaking the head after a mistake is creating three mistakes out of one: the original mistake antibiotics you can give dogs purchase ceftin with paypal, an inappropriate reaction antibiotics klacid xl order ceftin 250 mg with mastercard, and broadcasting to antibiotic wound infection order generic ceftin line the audience that a mistake was made antibiotic iv therapy cheap 250mg ceftin free shipping. Every practice session must be a practice session for avoiding mistakes, making them unnoticeable. Pretend that you are accompanying a choir or playing a concerto and must pick up the music at the correct spot. Common types of casual performances are playing pieces for testing pianos in stores or playing for friends at parties, etc. These are different from formal recitals because of their greater freedom and reduced pressure. Nervousness should not be an issue, and is in fact one of the best ways to practice methods for controlling or avoiding nervousness. This is a great way to experiment and nd out how you perform and which snippets work. Can you adjust to a different piano especially one that is out of tune or difficult to play Another way to practice performing is to teach others, especially youngsters, to play. Playing snippets is effective because most audiences are impressed by the ability to stop and start anywhere in the middle of a piece only concert pianists can do that, right Once you have done this type of casual snippet performance on 4 or 5 different occasions, you will have a good idea of your performance capabilities. One of the routines you should practice "cold" are snippet playing routines they need practice too. Without this mental expectation, you can end up disappointed after every attempt at performing and develop psychological fears. A few mistakes or missed notes go unnoticed in practice, and your assessment of how you sound during practice is more optimistic than the assessment if you had played exactly the same way for an audience. After a practice, you tend to remember only the good parts, but after a performance, you tend to remember only the mistakes. Usually, you are your worst critic; every slip sounds worse to you than to the audience. Most audiences will miss half of the mistakes and forget most of the rest, unless you make a big deal out of it. Thus every pianist should learn popular music, jazz, cocktail music, music from fake books, and improvisation. They learn what it means to complete a task, and they learn what "making music" means. Then they repeat this (59) Project Management process with every new piece of music they learn. Successful pianists become masters of project management, a skill that is useful everywhere, not just for piano. They become deadly serious about eliminating all errors and learning everything correctly it is capitalism at its best, because it is their performance. Teachers without recitals often end up with students who practice a few times just before lesson day. Because the psychology and sociology of piano playing is not well developed, there are pitfalls that we must consider. Most teachers are not trained in psychology and expect the students to be able to step up to the piano, sit down, and play without proper training. The most important consideration is nervousness and its impact on the mind, especially for the young. Nervousness can make recitals a frightful experience that requires attention in order to avoid not only unhappy experiences but also lasting psychological damage. This subject will be treated more completely in the section on [(56) Origin and Control of Nervousness]. At this writing one major principle of performance enhancement is based on the concept of "ow" (Csikszentmihalyi), but it has not been applied to piano performance. Thus piano pedagogy is behind other disciplines in understanding and applying advanced concepts in performance, in spite of the fact that piano is a performing art. There are numerous psychological and sociological implications of recitals and competitions. The judging systems in music competitions are notoriously unfair, and judging is a difficult and thankless job. Thus students entered into competition must be informed of these shortcomings of the "system" so that they do not suffer mental anguish from perceived unfairness and disappointment. There may be 30 contestants, but only one can "win"; from an educational point of view, that is counter productive. It is difficult, but possible, for students to understand that the most important element of competitions is that they participate, not that they win. The system does not encourage communication among teachers to improve teaching methods. It is no wonder that there is a school of thought that favors eliminating competitions. There is no question that recitals and competitions motivate students to try harder; but the present system can certainly be improved by better overall teacher education and better communications among teachers. Even great artists have 145 stopped performing for periods of time and some of the reasons were related to nervousness. Although good piano teachers always hold recitals of their students and enter them into competitions, they have tended to be poor sociologists or psychologists, concentrating only on piano playing and ignoring nervousness. It is important for any person guiding youngsters through recitals and competitions to learn the fundamentals of what causes nervousness, how to deal with it, and its psychological consequences. Because teachers fail so often, the parents must look out for the social and psychological welfare of their children. Most people dislike nervousness because it is too often accompanied, or is caused, by fear of failure. Therefore, although nervousness is necessary for a great performance, it needs to be kept under control; otherwise, it can interfere with the performance and cause suffering. Emotions are basic, primitive, animal reactions, and have evolved to be helpful under normal circumstances. Youngsters, who are too frightened to perform solo, almost always enjoy performing in a group. A lack of understanding of nervousness also creates fear because of the fear of the unknown. Thus the simple knowledge of what stage fright is, and what generally happens during a performance, can be a calming factor by reducing the fear of the unknown. This theory became popular because it is in fact the way in which the majority of objects in our universe form, from raindrops to cities, stars, humans, etc. Tiny nuclei are always forming and disappearing, but there is a thing called a critical nucleus which, when formed, becomes stable it does not disappear. In general, the critical nucleus does not form unless there is a supersaturation of the material that aggregate to form it. For the object to grow to its nal size, the critical nucleus needs a growth mechanism by which to increase its size. One interesting aspect of nucleation is that there is always a barrier to nucleation otherwise, everything would have nucleated a long time ago. In everyday life, your sense of nervousness comes and goes, without becoming anything serious. However, this still may not cause any problem because there are natural barriers to nucleating nervousness, because the person may not even be aware of nervousness, or might be too busy nalizing the preparations for the recital. This may still not be that bad, until you start to worry that perhaps your piece is not yet ready to perform or the nervousness might interfere with the playing these fears cause the nervousness to grow. It is not a good idea to pretend that nervousness does not exist, especially with youngsters who can more easily suffer lifelong psychological damage. Kids are smart and they can easily see through the pretense, and the need to play along with the pretense can only increase the stress because they must shoulder the burden by themselves and feel alone and abandoned. This is why performance training, in which nervousness is discussed and studied, is so important.

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Cohen (2006) reports a high rate of depression relapse among pregnant women who discontinued their medication before becoming pregnant bacteria nitrogen cycle discount ceftin, compared to antibiotics after root canal ceftin 250 mg free shipping women who maintained their medication xkcd antibiotics order ceftin no prescription. On the other hand virus types buy ceftin 500 mg on line, many women of reproductive age and even pregnant women are prescribed long-term antidepres sant therapy for minor mood disorders that could be treated with non-medical therapies. Other members of this group are amitriptyline, clomipramine, dibenzepin, dosulepine, dothiepin, doxepin, imipramine, lofepramine, protripty line, and trimipramine. Desipramine and nortriptyline are second ary amines, which have less parasympatholytic properties. Monitoring of maternal serum levels is recommended due to altered pharmacokinetics during pregnancy, especially in the sec ond and third trimesters. Thus, the usual therapeutic dose may not be sufficient to keep the mother stable, and it may need to be readjusted (Gold 1999, Wisner 1993). Fetal exposure can be considerable, as has been demon strated for nortriptyline and clomipramine (Loughhead 2006). An increased risk for cardiovascular defects after maternal use of clomipramine has recently been reported by Kallen (2006). Maternal exposure to antidepressants may be associated with a risk for spontaneous abortions. However, the underlying depres sion could also be a contributing factor (Hemels 2005). Short-term withdrawal symptoms such as jitteriness, irritability, myoclonus, and convulsions have been reported in the neonate after chronic maternal use, especially near term (Kallen 2004, Bloem 1999, Bromiker 1994, Schimmell 1991). In the study of Kallen (2004), 90% of the women had used clomipramine and 10% had used amitriptyline. There are no or limited data for dosulepine, doxepin, lofepramine, and trimipramine. Desipramine and nortriptyline are preferred by some investiga tors, since they are less anticholinergic and the least likely to exac erbate the orthostatic hypotension which occurs during pregnancy (Nonacs 2002). It inhibits the reuptake of noradrenaline in the synapses, and has mood-enhancing properties. No adverse effects were reported following the use of maprotiline during pregnancy in a small number of women (McElhatton 1996). Monitoring of maternal serum levels is recommended, and if necessary the daily dose 2. The use of other drugs from this group for which fewer data are available is not an indication for termination of pregnancy or spe cific prenatal diagnostics. Furthermore, a pregnant patient who is stable with a second-choice antidepressant should not be changed to another 2 drug, because this may worsen her health. Regular psychiatric and obstetric care is recom mended to diagnose in time a relapse or pregnancy complications (intrauterine growth retardation, premature contractions). The half-lives of fluoxetine and the metabolite nor fluoxetine are several days and 14 days, respectively. The half-life of citalopram is 36 hours; fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline have half-lives of less than 24 hours. Heikkinen (2003, 2002) report that during pregnancy maternal drug concentrations of citalopram and fluoxetine may be lower than in non-pregnant women, and could lead to therapeutic failure. In a study with small numbers, Hostetter (2000) found that more than half of the pregnant women using fluoxetine, paroxetine or sertraline required an increase in their daily dose. The fetus appears to be able to metabolize and eliminate the drugs to some extent. Infant fluoxetine and norfluoxetine concentrations are high at delivery and during the early postnatal period, and are only slowly eliminated by the infant. Norfluoxetine concentrations were still detectable at the age of 2 months in most of the infants (Heikkinen 2003). Only fluoxetine and norfluoxetine, and not paroxetine, sertraline or O-desmethylsertraline, could be detected in infant serum by Rampono (2004). The outcome of several thousands of pregnancies is known for citalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline; of several hundreds for fluvoxamine. Only Chambers (1996) reported an increased incidence of three or more minor malformations, but further details are not given, which makes the clinical significance of the data difficult to assess. Most of those studies were performed with relatively small num bers of pregnancies; four studies report on larger numbers. Major malformations were more common in women exposed to fluoxetine in the first trimester, but 2. Among them were 12 cases of isolated cardiovascular anomalies, of which 8 were ventricular septal defects. This is nearly three-fold more than the prevalence of cardiovascular malforma tions generally in Finland. Goldstein (1997) has summarized the 2 outcomes of 796 fluoxetine-exposed pregnancies during the first trimester from the Pregnancy Registry of Eli Lilly. No increased incidence of major congenital malformations was found (McElhatton, personal communication). There was no evidence that the association was specific to particu lar malformations (Wogelius 2006). In 2005, concerns were raised after the publication of some studies suggesting an association between first-trimester exposure to paroxe tine and cardiovascular anomalies in particular, ventricular and atrial septum defects (Kallen 2006, Diav-Citrin 2005A). However, the individual risk is small, and further studies are needed to verify this association. Cardiac septal defects are recorded as major malforma tions, but they often spontaneously close. Signals of eye malformations have also been reported in other countries (Tabacova 2004). Adverse obstetric outcome Maternal exposure to antidepressants may be associated with a risk for spontaneous abortion. However, the underlying depression could also be a contributing factor (Hemels 2005). Data concern case reports, case series, and cohort studies published in literature. Reported symptoms are jitteriness, shiver ing, tremors, increased muscle tone, feeding and sleep disturbances, irritability, agitation, respiratory distress, and excessive crying. Symp toms are usually mild and transient, but may need treatment in spe cial neonatal care units. The onset of symptoms is 12 hours to 5 days after birth, but they may also occur immediately at birth, suggesting acute neonatal toxicity (Nordeng 2005, Isbister 2001). Other authors have reported addi tional cases or case series of neonatal withdrawal symptoms for citalopram (Tabacova 2005), fluoxetine (Rampono 2004), paroxetine (Haddad 2005, Rampono 2004, Jaiswal 2003), and sertraline (Santos 2004). There are case reports of neonatal convulsions after late in utero exposure to paroxetine (Sanz 2005). Oberlander (2004) reports significantly elevated paroxetine lev els in infants showing withdrawal symptoms whose mothers had used both paroxetine and clonazepam, compared with paroxetine only. Clonazepam appeared to have altered paroxetine metabolism, leading to increased drug levels and risk for transient neonatal symptoms. Two infants, one with prolonged Q-interval and one with cardiac arrhythmia after in utero exposure to fluoxetine, have been reported (Dubnov 2005, Abebe-Campino 2002). Four case reports of intraventricular hemorrhage in the newborn after expo sure to paroxetine (n 3) and fluoxetine (n 1) late in pregnancy have been summarized by Nordeng (2005). Mattson (2004) and Casper (2003) found a slight delay in motor development and motor control. Further studies are needed to verify the association between first-trimester maternal exposure to paroxetine and infant cardiac defects, as suggested in some recent stud ies. The average safety profile seems to be better for sertraline and citalo pram than for fluoxetine and paroxetine. Appropriate treatment of the depres sion must always be a primary consideration when evaluating the risks and benefits to the mother and the infant. Furthermore, a pregnant patient who is stable with a second-choice antidepressant should not be changed to 296 2. To pre vent neonatal adaptation disorders, dose reduction or even treatment inter ruption in the days immediately preceding delivery can be discussed with the patient if the clinical course allows.

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It is sought to be an alternative and mitigated solution in relation to the acquisition of property using bank financing, which may be more rigid, heavy and difficult to access. Raimundo, Jose, (2015), Novo Regime do Arrendamento Urbano Anotado e Comentado, Vida Economica 6. The term soft targets usually refers to objects, premises or events characterized by the presence of a greater number of people and, at the same time, the absence or low level of security against violent attacks of different nature. Such objects, places and events are selected purposefully as the target of serious violent attacks (often terrorist attacks). The aim of the paper is to present the characteristics of potential targets, the most common means of attack and the main principles of securing soft targets, as well as the basic diagnostic factors for choosing security measures and the possibilities of increasing the resilience and level of securing soft targets. The knowledge contained in the paper can be used not only to get acquainted with the security management and protection of soft targets but also as a guide to the threat assessment systems at their current level of security. Keywords: Soft targets, Security Diagnostics and Assessment, Soft targets protection, Resilience of soft targets 1. When defining potential targets, attack scenarios and security measures to prevent or reduce the impact of an attack, coordination of multiple security forces is always necessary. By attacking soft targets, it is relatively easy to cause high casualties, serious health and property consequences and thereby attracting expected attention of media and public. The worldwide rise of terrorism has been accompanied by a series of attacks against targets that were characterized by limited protection measures. A tendency has appeared for assaults at unprotected places of people congregation, irrespective of the gathering purpose (recreational, political, religious, commercial etc. The recent terrorist attacks in Paris, Brussels and Barcelona in 2015 2017, led into the realization that areas with high people concentration (metro and train stations, airports, means of mass transportation, stadiums, concert venues, shopping malls, pedestrian areas etc. The number of attacks and the number of victims from soft target attacks that were performed in Europe is presented in. Figure following on the next page 239 52nd International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development Porto, 16-17 April 2020 Figure 1: Number of victims in soft target attacks in the years 2014-2017 in Europe Source: Karlos, V. The paper contains a definition of the term soft target, characteristics and the most common ways of attacking objects, premises and events as potential targets and the main principles of securing soft targets. The next part contains the definition of basic diagnostic factors for the choice of effective security measures and the possibility of increasing the resilience and level of soft targets assurance through expert assessment of the vulnerability degree of soft targets. The above mentioned knowledge can be used not only to get acquainted with the content and basis of the issue of soft targets protection but also as a guide for defining and implementing a simple system for assessing the level of their vulnerability. These are primarily tourist attractions or various social (especially sport, political, religious or cultural) events and traffic nodes (stations, airports) or means of transport. In the wider definition of soft targets, schools, hospitals, as well as swimming pools, sport fields and other objects are considered to be such objects. Definition and potential targets According to (Security Policy, 2016), the soft targets are "objects, spaces or actions characterized by the high concentration of people, an absence or a low level of security measures against violent attacks and non-inclusion between critical infrastructure objects (Rehak, 2019). According to (Benova et al, 2019) Soft targets are objects (buildings, premises, open spaces, etc. These objects do not apply any or only slightly specific security measures to prevent a violent attack on the lives of persons in these objects, to ensure a rapid response to the attack, or to assist in managing a potential attack without losing peoples lives. A violent attack on this target could cause death or injury to a person or more persons who are near the destination". Just this fact significantly limits practical possibilities of their securing only by the state or public administration and increases the need for security measures taken by their owners /operators Most soft targets are able to ensure their security much better. In the (Karlos, 2018) sources of guidelines and other informative material concerning the protection of soft targets against terrorist attacks are collected and presented. The illustrated informative sources cover a wide range of vulnerable places that may become the target of malicious attacks. The list included in Karlos (2018) is divided in categories based on the soft target type and contains practical guidance originating from a variety of countries. As noted, in the European Union detailed documentation on security upgrade options for specific soft targets (facades, education/religious facilities, drones) is rather limited. It is considered that special care should also be paid to the citizen involvement in the event of terrorist attacks. The future guides to be produced should aim at providing advice to the security stakeholders for reducing the risk of an attack and introducing proper measures for mitigating the damage and other consequences, should such an incident occurs. Types of Significant Attacks For the state, the most important fact is that soft targets are large number. This significantly limits the practical possibilities of ensuring their security only by the state/public administration and increases the necessity for the implementation of the security measures by the soft targets themselves (Potential Terrorist Attack, 2008). When analysing threats, defining scenarios and defining a security system for soft targets, considering the following ways of potential attacks is needed: cold weapon attack (knife). This database is a comprehensive overview of the terrorist attacks committed between 1970 and 2019. Moreover, it is an open-source database including information on terrorist attacks around the world. For each incident, there is information available on the date and location of the events, weapons used and nature of the target, the number of casualties, and, when identifiable, the group or individuals responsible. They are characterized by security relevant characteristics that differ them from other targets but also among themselves. Typical ways to commit terrorist attacks have been identified and therefore it is possible to define the most of the relevant measures in advance. This makes it possible to target the protective and defensive elements more precisely, to formulate the principles of security and to recommend specific measures. Establishment of an appropriate measure To set up a functional soft target security system, it is needed to (Leitner, 2020): 1. Clarify protected interest At this stage, it is necessary to define what we value, what we do not want to lose, what could possibly damage us. Primarily it is about the health and life of people (violent attacks), property, information, social values, and also. Define possible sources of danger (threat) to protected interest It is necessary to identify specific groups or categories of persons with potential motivation to attack. This is used to analyse previous similar attacks and to consider potential sources of threat. It is always necessary to take into account the specifics of a particular object / action and usually specific threats. Specify threatening ways of attack the basis of a high-quality soft-target security system is to define as precisely as possible the sources of threat. The security system must be the result of a thorough analysis of interests and potential threats. It is characterized by a systematic analysis of the threats to a specific target and then by setting up appropriate measures. Analyse specified threats by threat and risk analysis methods and identify priority threats. The threat rate overview is often expressed by a matrix which makes it possible to allocate resources to address priority threats more efficiently. Prioritization of threats makes it possible to determine their importance and to determine for which of them the resources will be allocated. Design and application of security measures Based on prioritization of threats and determination of appropriate measures, measures to increase the resilience of the object are applied. There are, for example, installed technical elements, elaborated specific security plans, determining not only preventive measures and routine procedures but also reaction if the crisis situation has not been prevented and its consequences have to be minimized. Incident timing With all the planned incidents, it is necessary to work in three phases of time (Kalvach, 2017). What can be done before the occurrence of the incident so that the likelihood of its occurrence and the extent of the consequences are reduced or the incident has diverged from the target. What can be done to mitigate the impact when the incident has already taken place. Before the incident: Prevention deterrence Preventive measures reduce the likelihood of an attack, increase the speed and intensity of the response, and limit the extent of the consequences and reduce them more quickly.

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